7th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)
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9.1 The modern communication system is an integral part of the development process, and can aid in the acceleration of the growth of the economy by providing the necessary motivation and information. Therefore in the Seventh Plan, all existing communication capabilities— both hardware and software—will be harnessed and also augmented to the extent required. The electronic means—radio, T.V. and telecommunications—will have to play a major role in this effort. While the communication system will be used to serve all segments of society, it will be developed to accord special priority to the rural people and to the deprived sections.



9.2 Growth in Telecommunications is inextricably related to and woven with growth of technologies in other sectors. It serves as an important input into the total development effort. It is linked with a large variety of high technology areas, for example, Electronics Sector, Satellite Communication, Broadcasting network and services like Power, Oil, Railways, Mines Banking and Airlines. The development of solid state electronics, digital computer and space communications opens up many new possibilities in the field of telecommunications. The growing use of digital technology in telecommunications facilities its interface with computers and the advent of satellites reduces the costs of long haul telecommunications. These developments should enable the country to move into a new era of telecommunications.

Sixth Plan Review

9.3 In the Sixth Plan, a provision of Rs. 2810 crores was made for the development of Communications. It was then envisaged that the Communication Services, particularly Postal and Telecommunication Services, will be extended to all parts of the country, with speical attention to Rural, Tribal and Hill areas. The anticipated expenditure is Rs. 3095.59 crores.


9.4 A provision of Rs. 2336 crores was made for Telecommunications in the Sixth Plan, the anticipated expenditure is Rs. 2729.64 crores. However, whereas in financial terms, the provision has exceeded, the achievement of physical targets has lagged behind. As compared to a target of 13.3 lakh Direct Exchange Lines (DELs) the achievement will be only 8.82 lakh DELs i.e. about 66 per cent. In case of long distance switching and transmission systems the achievements have been less than 50 per cent of the physical targets.

Indian Telephone Industries

9.5 In the Sixth Plan, a provision of Rs. 195 crores was made for the development schemes of the ITI. The expenditure in the Plan period has been Rs. 136.73 crores. The more important schemes on which expenditure was incurred in the Sixth Plan are (i) Bangalore Unit, (ii) Rae Bareli Cross Bar Factory, and (iii) ESS Factory at Mankapur (Gonda). The shortfalls in utilisation of outlays have been in the cases of Palghat Phase III Expansion, Rae Bareli Cross Bar Unit and Bangalore and Naini Telephone Expansion Projects.

Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd.

9.6 In the Sixth Plan, a provision of Rs. 14 crores was made for the development programmes of H.T.L. estimated expenditure has been Rs. 7.27 crores. The expenditure was incurred on modernisation of existing facilities, Factory buildings, Housing and Welfare, R and D, the Electric Typewriter Project and the Electronic Teleprinter Project.

Overseas Communications Services (OCS)

9.7 A provision of Rs. 85 crores was included in the Sixth Plan for the O.C.S.; of this amount, a sum of Rs. 69.51 crores has been spent. The expenditure was incurred on various schemes/include, inter-alia, the Switching and Satellite Projects, Capital Contribution on INTELSATand INMARSAT, the Indo-USSR Tropo Project etc.

Monitoring Organisation

9.8 In the Sixth Plan a provision of Rs. 8 crores was made for schemes of this organisation, the anticipated expenditure in the five year period is Rs. 3.51 crores. Some of the important schemes taken up during the Sixth Plan are (i) Setting up of two new monitoring stations, (ii) procurement of equipment for 4 microwave monitoring stations, (iii) modernisation, (iv) Radio Noise Survey Unit, (v) Monitoring of Space Emissions, and (vi) Training and Development Centres. Some of these schemes will spill over to the Seventh Plan.

Seventh Plan

9.9 In the Seventh Plan, the development of the Communications Sector will be characterised by a five-pronged strategy: balanced growth in net-work, rapid modernisation, a quantum jump in technology, increased productivity and innovations in organisations and management.

9.10 To achieve the above in an orderly manner, the Seventh Plan would address itself to the following:—

  1. To improve or replace worn-out equipment and make a jump in digital electronic and optic fibre;
  2. To prescribe precise time frames for the introduction of new services and network expansions;
  3. To integrate services with the eventual target of providing Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
  4. To advise on application of new technologies in fields of hardware and software in India's future network plans;
  5. To extend telecommunication to rural areas;
  6. To provide new services to help promote growth in the business and industrial sectors;
  7. To provide facilities for Training and Strengthening of R and D facilities.
  8. To introduce effective Telecom Organisation and Management to be able to operate its systems and plans for the future.

9.11 The Improvement component would consist of replacing life-expired and worn out equipment dueling of Cables, automatisation of Manual Exchanges and Computerisation of Services in Metropolitan cities etc. The upgradation of the network in the 4 Metropolitan cities of Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras is included under this component. The Balancing Component consists of investment required for the removal of mis-matches and imbalance in the network, mostly between equipped capacity and the revenue earning DELs and between Long Distance Transmission Capacity and growth of DELs in the Local Switching System. The Expansion Component consist of the addition to be made to the existing facilities like additional DELs, Additional Telex connections etc.

9.12 Non-voice Telecommunication Services including Data Communication and Computer Communication System would be set up. It will provide invaluable service support to commerce, industry, banking, airlines, land bulk users like Oil, power Railways, etc., and terminals for versatile use of data, facsimile, computer hookup and even voice, if necessary.

9.13 Standardisation of equipment would be aimed at. Total Systems engineering job would precede equipment supply. There is a need for a Communication Systems Engineering and Analysis Body to be set up, which has expertise and skills for systems design, and which can also guide telecom users.

9.14 Training of the requisite personnel for the Telecommunication sector would be given special emphasis to meet the fundamental changes taking place in the technologies, which would require imparting new kind of skills. For this purpose ITIs (Industrial Training Instituties) would be dedicated to give training to Telecommunication workers and an appropriate syllabus be framed for this purpose.

9.15 Telecom should pay for itself. The users would increasingly be made to bear the cost of Telecom use, especially Bulk Users like Power, Oil, Railways, Banks, Airlines, etc. It should also be possible to mobilise additional resources for telecom development through innovative methods of financing, e.g. direct borrowings from the market.

9.16 Fundamental changes in organisational structures and management methods would be called for. The first step has already been taken by a Committee being appointed to look into the possibilities of creating Corporations in the cities of Delhi and Bombay to undertake the Telecommunication work. Organisational restructuring by itself will not be sufficient. Agencies involved in providing telecommunication services must be transformed from procedure and rule-bound bureaucratic institutions to commercial enterprises with enterpreneurial drive. Procedures for project planning, financial control, maintenance, technology development and even marketing have to be changed. This is necessary since telecommunication now is an industry with fast changing technology, new applications and high expectations from its users.

9.17 The total outlay for the Department of Telecommunications during the Seventh Plan is Rs. 4530.00 crores made up as under:

Sub-Sector Rs. Crores

Telecommunications 4010.00
Indian Telephone Industries 335.00
Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd. 24.22
Overseas Communication Services 146.55
Monitoring Organisation 14.23
Total 4,530.00

The various subheads under which outlay on Telecommunications would be spent are given on the following page.

Local Telephone System

9.18 A provision of Rs. 1690 crores is included in the Seventh Plan. With this provision, it is proposed to add an additional Switching Capacity of about 12 lakh lines for commissioning 9.5 lakh DELs, to reach a level of about 38 lakh DELs as on 1-4-1990. This outlay includes, inter-alia, provision for dueling of 6500 route kms. of underground cables, replacement of equipment for 1 lakh lines, automatisation of 60,000 manual exchange lines and computerisation of services in the four metro-cities and some major Telephone Districts.

Long Distance Switching

9.19 A provision of Rs. 142 crores is proposed to be made for long distance switching. As compared to the physical achievement of 47,220 lines of TAX Capacity in the Sixth Plan, about 77,000 lines are expected to be commissioned in the Seventh Plan period.

Long Distance Transmission System

9.20 For the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 933 crores has been made for long distance transmission systems. The physical target likely to be achieved in the Seventh Plan is 1.17 lakh additional channels of co-axial cables, fibre optics, microwave and U.H.F.

Insat and Intelsat

9.21 It is necessary to provide a variety of Satellite based services for Industry, Commerce, Defence, Security and Emergency needs. For the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 174 crores is being made.

Open Wire and Telegraphs

9.22 For the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 606 crores has been made for open wire Telegraphs, Telex, Rural Tele-Communication and Non-Voice services. It is proposed to modernise the public telegraph network, provide 9,000 Rural Long Distance Public Telephones (LDPTs), and to bring 15 Districts under the coverage of Rural Integrated Digital Network (IDN). The Telex Capacity is proposed to be augmented, by 48,000 local capacity lines and 7,000 transit capacity lines.

9.23 The changing pattern of demand for Telecommunication services, especially the growing demand for data and non-voice communication facilities, has also kept in view and the Plan includes introduction of new services such as Teletex, Videotex, Telefax etc.


9.24 For the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 220 crores has been made .for land and buildings, and Rs. 245 crores for the Telecommunication Research Centre, Testing and other organisations.

Indian Telephone Industries

9.25 In the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 335 crores has been made for the development programmes of the Indian Telephone Industries. Work will be continued in the Plan period on various spill-over schemes. These include the ESS factory, Mankapur, Bangalore and Naini Telephone units, Rae Bareli cross Bar and Palghat Electronics Units. New Schemes on which work is expected to start in the Seventh Plan are a second Electronic switching Factory, a Transmission Equipment Unit and a dedicated unit for defence supplies. Provision is also made for R and D.

Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd.

9.26 In the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 24.22 crores has been made for the development schemes of the HTL. Work will be continued on the spill-over schemes.

Overseas Communication Services (OCS)

9.27 In the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 146.55 crores is proposed to be made for the development schemes of the Overseas Communication Services. Work will be continued on the spill over schemes, the most important of which is the scheme relating to Westward Cable to Gulf Countries and Bombay-Madras Microwave Link. Among the new schemes to be taken up in the Seventh Plan period are the Satellite and switching projects, the submarine cable project, and HF services. This is a highly revenue yielding area, and the early completion of the scheme proposed, would enable the Department to increase their revenues.

Monitoring Organization

9.28 The Wireless Monitoring Organisation with its network of 21 stations, is the nodal co-ordinating and regulating agency on matters relating to the utilisation of radio spectrum at the national level. With the rapid technological advancement and proliferation of wireless transmission media, the task of monitoring is getting more challenging, sophisticated and voluminous. There is, thus, need to strengthen and modernise the organisation.

9.29 For the Seventh Plan, a provision of Rs. 14.23 crores has been made for the development schemes of this organisation. Work will be continued on the spill over schemes. The more important of the new works proposed to be undertaken in the Plan period include (i) Modernisation of existing HF/VHF Monitoring Facilities, (ii) Addition of HF/VHF fixed and mobile Monitoring Units; (iii) Monitoring of HF/DF systems, (iv) Regional Maintenance centres and (v) Associated Civil works.


Sixth Plan Review

9.30 In the Sixth Plan, expansion of Postal Network was envisaged mainly for the rural, backward, hilly and tribal areas. Measures were also envisaged to improve the quality of the existing rural Postal Services. The Plan included a provision of Rs. 172 crores for the development of Postal Services. The expenditure in the five year period is now estimated at Rs. 148,93 crores. The physical achievements in the Sixth Plan include the opening of 6752 Rural Post Offices, the provision of Counter Service to rural areas in 9,625 villages, installation of 12,832 letter boxes, appointment of 8040 extra departmental agents and 37 Plan Monitoring Inspectors. The physical achievements include the construction of 5.32 Postal Buildings and 4453 Staff Quarters. Other physical achievements include the acquisition of 657 Mail Motor Vehicle and 18 Mail Vans.

Programmes and Outlays Seventh Plan

9.31 In the Seventh Plan a provision of Rs. 295 crores has been made for Postal Services.

9.32 Under the sub-head, "Expansion of Postal Network", on outlays of Rs. 10.10 crores is provided. The physical targets proposed are as below:


Sl. No. Scheme Physical targets
(i) Opening of Post Offices 6,000 nos.
(ii) Counter Services to rural areas 4,000 nos.
(iii) Installation of letter boxes 5,000 nos.
(iv) Additional Extra Departmental Agents 1,200 nos.
(v) creation of Posts of PMIs 33 nos.

9.33 This is a highly employment intensive programme, and the provision made in the Seventh Plan will help to increase the depth of coverage of Postal Network.

9.34 A provision of Rs. 215 crores has been made in the Seventh Plan for construction of buildings. It is proposed to construct 1250 postal buildings and 7000 Staff quarters with this provision.

9.35 A provision of Rs. 15 crores has been included in the Plan for training schemes.

9.36 Under mechanisation and modernisation of Postal Services, a provision of Rs. 39 crores has been made.This includes the introduction of automatic sorting projects at one or two metropolitan cities, one departmental printing press, electronic data processing machines etc.

9.37 For Mail Motor Vehicles, a provision of Rs. 11.10 crores has been made and it is proposed to acquire about 900 vehicles in the plan period. For RMS vans, a provision of Rs. 4.80 crores has been made and with this provision, it is proposed to acquire 32 Mail Vans in the five year period.

S and T Component

9.38 Research and Development in Telecommunications is carried out in various wings of the Ministry of communications (MOC) e.g. Telecommunication Research Centre; Telecom Factories at Bombay, Calcutta, Jabalpur; Overseas Communication Service (OCS); Indian Telephone Industries (ITI), and Hindustan Teleprinters Limited (HTL)

9.39 S and T activities in the areas of telecommunications proposed for the Seventh Plan:

  1. Development of SPC-2 Local and Trunk Automatic Exchanges.
  2. Development of Stored Programme Control for Electro-Mechanical Switching System.
  3. Development of large capacity swiching system for telegraph network, for eliminating transitting operations and inter-working between the two switching nodes through satellite.
  4. Development of Telematic Services.
  5. Development of Computer programmes for local and national network planning.
  6. Alternate Sources of Energy.
    • Powering of Satellite Ground Station by Solar Energy.
    • Powering of SAX, M/W repeater by wind energy and-or wind-cum-solar energy.
    • Solar Power Airconditioning.
    • Solar Powered Exchange with Hydro-Storage.
    • Thermo-electric Generator.
    • Running a small exchange by biogas.
  7. Development of 140 Mb/S wide band digital M/W system working 4, 6 and 11 GH-bands.
  8. Single channel (chl), 2 chl, 10 chl digital systems for rural telecom network.
  9. Development of 140 Mb/S; 505 Mb/S and 1.12 Gb/S fibre system.
  10. Development of 140 Mb/S and higher system on coaxial media.
  11. Pilot Project for satellite based telegraph network.
  12. Development of small capacity PCM digital local/ transit exchange and PABX's.
  13. Development of digital U.H.F. Systems.

9.40 In ITI, the primary emphasis will be on digital radio and line systems, advanced versions of digital multiplexing heirarchy, SPC digital telephone and telex exchanges, electronic and digital subscriber instruments, investigative work and field trials of ISDN, and large scale introduction of fibre optic technology. In the satellite communication field, the thrust will be to develop a range of products to enable full utilisation of the INSATand future communication satellites. To keep the products competitive in comparison with those available internationally, great emphasis will be placed on the use of custom hybrid micro-circuits, LSI-VISI chips and other modern packaging strategies. During the product development phase, it is proposed to lay a greater degree of stress on reliability and maintainability, both of hardware and software. High volume manufacture and rapid and error-free transfer of know-how from R and D to production divisions are two other areas which will need to be addressed.



9.41 The major thrust of the plan relating to mass, media will be to raise the level of peoples' consciousness and enrich their cultural and social life and make them better informed citizens. It will assist in stepping up the pace of development of programmes and sensitise the people towards national and international events of importance. Besides entertainment, programmes covering sports, culture and fine arts will be provided. There will also be target-group oriented programmes i.e. for youths, women, children and weaker sections. Further the media will act as a vehicle of education and extension and so, narrow information gaps faced by the people from different walks of life. It will assist in enlarging the scope of formal education through special schemes like open universities.

9.42 The use of media will help in spreading the message of national integration and motivate the people to put in their best for achieving the national objectives. For this purpose, a skitlful synthesis between traditional and folk forms of communication on the one hand, and the modern audio-visual media including satellite communication on the other, will be fully exploited. Radio, T.V. films and other forms of audio-visual media will be pressed into service for this purpose.

Sixth Plan Review

9.43 The Sixth plan outlay for plan schemes of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is Rs. 240.33 crores. The anticipated expenditure for the five year period 1980-85 is estimated at Rs. 244.99 crores. Details of outlay and expenditure for the four sectors are shown in Table 9.2—

Table 9.2
(Rs. crores)

Sector   VI Plan outlay VI Plan anticipated expenditure
Sound Broadcasting 122.38 84.80
Doordarshan *86.95 133.71
Films media 23.15 18.17
Information and publicity 7.85 8.31
240.33 244.99

* Additional schemes for TV: TV Special Programme—Rs. 68 crores; North Eastern Plan—Rs. 36.43 crores; Additional equipment for TV centres—Rs. 8.99 crores; Electronic equipment—Rs. 8.62 crores; total TV outlay—Rs. 208.39 crores.

9.44 With the completion of Sixth Plan projects, coverage by AIR has increased to 95 per cent of the population and 86 per cent by area and TV coverage to 33 per cent of population and 17 per cent of the area. A special TV expansion plan was, however, drawn up involving an additional expenditure of Rs. 68 crores to cover 70 per cent population of the country by November 1984. The Scheme envisaged provision of 13 high power and 113 low power additional transmitters. Subsequently, six more LPTs were sanctioned, in addition to three new schemes: (1) Provision of Electronic News Gathering equipment at various Doordarshan Kendras and procurement of transportable earth terminal: (2) Augmentation of electronic equipment at various Doordarshan Kendras, and (3) Exapansion of TV service in the North-Eastern Region. On the completion of these schemes, there will be 186 TV transmitters of varying powers in the TV network, covering about 70 per cent population of the country. On completion of the scheme regarding TV coverage of the North-Eastern Region, about 80 per cent population of that region would get TV coverage.

9.45 In regard to schemes relating to sound broadcasting the stress during the Sixth Plan had been on the following: completing spill over programmes, consolidating and expanding existing regional services, upgrading the power of existing transmitters, providing integrated shortwave service for North-Eastern Region, setting up permanent studios at auxiliary centres, setting up of new radio stations in uncovered pockets, making a beginning towards a dedicated national channel.

9.46 Schemes relating to information and film media in the Sixth Plan aimed at building an infrastructure in the rural and remote areas and at highlighting the developmental schemes for the welfare of the poor, weaker and backward sections. The Song and Drama Division set up second Sound and Light Field Unit and a pilot project to utilise the folk forms of tribal areas. Field Publicity aimed at setting up units in all the major districts of the country. The Press Information Bureau opened new Oftice-cum-Information centres and took up special conducted tours of press correspondents to tribal and hilly areas. The thrust of Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity's effort was towards integrated development of rural areas with emphasis on weaker sections of society like small and marginal farmers, people of tribal and hilly areas and North-Eastern Region by augmenting its production and distribution of publicity material and strengthening its exhibition units. The plan of Films Division included increase in the number of prints for release in theatres, construction of its building at Bombay, augmentation of production facilities in Defence Film Production Unit at Delhi and opening new centres for production of films in 16 mm. specially for rural audiences. National Film Archives of India's Plan included a scheme to construct its own building to house film processing laboratory, library, museum, etc., and to set up regional archival centres. The Children's Film Society aimed at stepping up production of children's feature films and import good quality children's films. National film Development Corporation played a purposeful role for the development of good cinema and financing of theatre construction.

Seventh Plan Approach

9.47 In the Seventh Plan, the stress will be .on productivity, and on providing a perspective of the new phase development. As far as possible, hardware infrastructure will be consolidated. Efforts will be made to establish and strengthen inter-linkages between the existing infrastructure and development programmes. New Management modes and organisational arrangements will be established for effective implementation. The low power transmitters (LPTs) of Doordarshan already installed will be adapted to provide communication support to the massive development programmes envisaged in the Seventh Plan. Programme production facilities will be provided at 48 existing centres and community participation in local specific programmes will be ensured. For All India Radio, F.M. transmitters will be used as local radio in a community-access mode with maximum local participation in programme production and for projecting the theme of national solidarity and development. The powerful Vividh Bharathi commercial channel will also be used for dissemination of vital developmental messages. For this purpose linkages with extension staff will be established for utilisation of the broadcast message. The Film media will establish and strengthen the parallel feature film movement in the country in which films would deal with matters of social urgency in a highly artistic and creative format and be highly communicative. Production and co-production of low-cast, quality films will be undertaken. The Films Division will provide infrastructure and funds for production of documentaries. In the In formation sector, disciplines, like management, marketing, system analysis, advertising techniques and behavioural and social sciences will be inducted to make it more effective. The Field Publicity units will undertake inter-personal communication in an extension mode. The Information media units will function better as a result of overall systems planning. The facilities provides by INSAT-IB will be utilised in full by Doordarshan and Sound Broadcasting.

Sound Broadcasting

9.48 The first task of AIR during the Seventh Plan is to complete all the spill over schemes like 1000 KW medium wave transmitter at Nagpur, 250 KW short wave transmitters at Delhi and Aligarh and 500 KW short wave transmitters at Bangalore. The main thrust is to maximise the day-time coverage by providing new radio stations in uncovered pockets and to take necessary steps to compensate for the night-time shrinkage that takes place as a result of interference from the high power transmitters of neighbouring countries. Special emphasis in this regard is being given to border, tribal and backward areas. Owing to the megawatt race in the neighbouring countries, there is tremendous erosion in the service area of our medium wave transmitters. The technology of F.M. will circumvent this problem of medium wave shrinkage and during the Seventh Plan a large number of FM transmitters will be installed. Other schemes are consolidation of regional shortwave support service, utilisation fo FM service for local radio mode in the country, upgradation of power of medium wave transmitters; strengthening and consolidation of External Service Transmitters; replacement and modernisation of obsolete equipment; expansion of radio networking through INSAT; providing alternative power supply; Science and Technology; software schemes etc.

9.49 A total provision of Rs. 700 crores has been made for Sound Broadcasting including Rs. 86 crores for spill over schemes; Rs. 97 crores for modernisation and renewal of existing equipment in the network and the rest for new schemes.


9.50 A three-tier service is to be introduced during the Seventh Plan period in a phased manner. A T.V. Service for the whole country with Delhi as a main production centre drawing programmes from other production centres would be set up for projecting aspects of all India interest. Each major State will have its own primary service, oiginating in the State in the language of the State, to be available throughout the State. Local service will be broadcast through the local transmitters. Programme production facilities would be provided at selected centres for local specific programmes. Replacement and modernisation of obsolete equipment by modern colour equipment is to be taken up on a priority basis.

9.51 Augmentation of facilities at existing centres will consist of continuing booths, continuity studios, colour OB Vans etc. Studio facilities with colour OB Vans and post-production facilities will be located at some of the capital cities. Electronic News Gathering Electronic Field Production vans are proposed for production of field programmes at major centres.

Regional ENG teams are to be stationed at some centres to cover important events of national and regional importance at short notice. The border areas are to be covered at selected places. New micro-wave links, additional end-links and uplinks are also to be set up. A staff training institute will also be set up during the Seventh Plan to train personnel for manning the new centres.

9.52 As technological advance in the hardware sector takes place, it is imperative to enrich the contents of the programme itself. Concentrated attention will be paid to software aspect of the T.V. System. For this purpose, the creative talents in the field of culture, social changes, science and technology will also be drawn upon. Its aim would be to draw the local talent into programming and to inculcate among the people a scientific temper and modern outlook which provides the bedrock of national integration. Care will be taken not to project themes which may have pernicious consequences of conspicuous consumerism and lead to social divisiveness.

9.53 A provision of Rs. 700 crores has been made for Doordarshan during the Seventh Plan, which includes Rs. 163.56 crores for spill over schemes and Rs. 93.98 crores for replacement and modernisation of equipment.

Science and Technology Programmes

9.54 The Research Department of All India Radio (Ministry of I and B) is responsible for carrying out research studies and investigations, apart from rendering specialised service to support the operational needs of the network, and also for developing equipment which are not manufactured in the country and are required on a limited scale. The activities of the Research Department cover the needs of broadcasting which includes Akashvani and Doordarshan.

9.55 The strengthening of R and D activities is proposed in the areas of:

  • Propagation studies in M.F., H.F., V.H.F.; Studies relating to design and development of TV studios, transmitting equipment and aerials; Digital techniques, remote control and automation;
  • Digital Television;
  • Development of F.M./H.F. aerials;
  • Stereophonic Broadcasting; and
  • Audio and acoustic engineering studies.

In addition, several new schemes have been proposed as indicated below:

  • New TV system development, e.g., digital television.MAGTV, HDTV, Video Automatic system etc. Fibre optics for transmission links.
  • Microwave Broadcasting Techniques.
  • Antenna systems for microwave transmitting/receiving.
  • Microwave propagation studies.
  • New projects under audio and acoustic engineering.
  • New projects under TV Broadcasting.
  • Use of micro-computers/micro processors in sound and TV broadcasting.

9.56 Significant support work relating to the area of radio and TV broadcasting is carried cut under ISRO (notably at SAC, Ahmedabad), by BEL (which is the manufacturer of major equipment needed by Akashvani and Doordarshan), NPL (Particularly on propagation studies) etc. under their own charters and programmes.


9.57 There are ten units in the film sector. The Films Division will complete the 2nd and 3rd phases of its building programme. It will provide funds for the production of special films in 16 mm. specifically intended for rural audiences. Private producers will be encouraged to produce these films. It has a scheme to augment production of documentary films for the North-Eastern Region. The schemes of the National Films Archives of India include air-conditioning of their film vaults, construction of specialised vaults for nitrate films and acquisition of archival films and film materials. The Film and Television Institute of India has training schemes in various aspects of film making for colour T.V. The Children's Film Society will produce, purchase and dub children's films and organise children's film festivals. The main scheme of the National Film Development Corporation is the production and co-production of high quality, low cost films which can be used in Doordarshan and also in the video parlours. It also proposes to have a chain of theatres in State capitals and acquire playing time in theatres. An outlay of Rs. 41.5-1 crores has been made in the Seventh Plan for the film sector.

Information Media

9.58 There are eleven units in this sector. The Press Information Bureau will introduce a computerised system of indexing and strengthening of photo and feature unit and set up telephone service at regional branch offices. The Publications Division is to continue its schemes of sales promotion and publication of Yojana in different languages. The Research and Reference Division is to modernise its National Documentation Centre on mass communication. The Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity has a scheme of exhibitions, development of audio-visual cell, distribution of publicity material and opening of two more regional offices. The Song and Drama division will open regional offices, strengthen the border publicity units, and set up programme designing units. The Field Publicity Directorate is to open additional field units. Additional regional offices will be opened and equipment modernised. The Directorate's major scheme is to provide office and residential accommodation in remote areas. The Photo Division will open photo cells in State capitals, strengthen colour units at headquarters and expand its exhibition cell. One of the major schemes of the Indian Institute of Mass Communication is the construction of its building. Other schemes relate to various training courses in journalism. The Ministry also proposes to construct its own Soochna Bhavan and common office building in State capitals. An outlay of Rs. 30 crores has been provided in the Seventh Plan for the Information Sector as a whole out of which Rs. 13 crores is the building component.

9.59 Besides the Central media, the State Governments/Union Territories also have their information schemes more or less on the Central pattern, consisting of song and drama, field publicity, production of films and films shows, community listening, community T.V. viewing, printed publicity, field publicity etc. An outlay of Rs. 90.84 crores is being provided for the States and Rs. 7.06 crores for the Union Territories for this sector during the Seventh Plan period.

9.60 India has always played a leading role in the non-aligned movement. In this connection, there is a need for promoting information flow, which would project the image of the non-aligned and developing countries. This would receive requisite attention.

9.61 Non-professional resources which have over a time acquired professional excellence would be mobilised to improve the quality of mass media.


9.62 The Seventh Plan provision for schemes relating to information and broadcasting are shown in Table 9.3:-

(Rs. crores)

Sl. No. Sector 6th Plan Outlay 7th Plan Outlay
I. Sound Broadcasting 122.38 700.00
II. Television 86.95 700.00
III. Information and Publicity (including Films):
(a) Centre 31.00 71.51
(b) States 28.46 90.84
(c) Union Territories 3.55 7.06
Total 272.34 1569.41


Sixth Plan Review

9.63 The Indian Space Programme is directed towards the goal of self-reliant use of Space technology for internal development.

9.64 The originally approved Sixth Plan provision of I-A, I-B and I-C was Rs. 103.29 crores. In 1983, when approval to the preponed purchase of I-C consequent upon the loss of I-A was sought and the cost of I-A and I-B itself was raised in early 1984 (Rs. 113 to Rs. 122 crores), the Plan provision was increased to Rs. 168.26 crores. As against this, the actual Sixth Five Year Plan expenditure will be Rs. 170.89 crores. This increase is a compound of increase in cost entirely due to dollar variation and a spill-over of tax payments which were expected to materialise in 1984-85 but were spilled over to 1985-86.

Seventh Plan Programmes and Outlays

9.65 During the Seventh Plan all the major objectives of the approved 1980-90 space profile will be realised including progressing the major space missions targeted for launch during the VIII Plan period and initiating the new R and D activities. The task include work on follow-on projects of ASLV/PSLV, IRS and proto INSAT as well as advanced R and D towards the space missions and activities of the nineties. The revised replenishment strategy is the basis for the 7th Plan 1985-90 INSAT space segment programme plan and projected outlays.

9.66 The Seventh Plan period covers/entails the following in terms of INSAT Space segment:

  1. continued operation of INSAT-B satellite and MCF operation in support of the same;
  2. launch (mid-1986) of INSAT-IC and MCF operations in support of INSAT-IC.
  3. completion of the fabrication and launch of two proto INSAT/INSAT-2 test spacecraft in 1988 and 1990, the second could be used as replenishment for INSAT-1B;
  4. start (1987-88) on INSAT-2 Flight models, 1, 2 and 3 with completion in Eight Plan period (1990-95) consistent with FM-1 launch in 1992-93 (as replacement for INSAT-IC and FM-2 launch in 1993-94 to complete primary location capability equivalent to the complete INSAT-2 Space segment. FM-3, delivered in late Eighth Plan, to serve as ground spare for added Space Segment capability/contingency reactibility assurance.

9.67 The Seventh Plan period (1985-90) will bring in for the first time a S and T sector component for the INSAT space segment in terms of INSAT-2 Test, i.e. Proto-INSAT satellites .

9.68 The INSAT-2 test and operational satellites will be identical in design except for possible improvements in the latter in the light of experience with the test spacecraft.

9.69 The second proto-INSAT spacecraft is to be used as replenishment for INSAT-1B if the first INSAT-2 tests satellite is a full success.

9.70 The outlay requirements for INSAT-1A and 1B in the 7th Plan period is Rs. 2.3 crores, for INSAT-1C Rs. 37.78 crores and for INSAT-1 Space Segment/MCF operations Rs. 9.55 crores, a total of Rs. 49.63 crores. For operational INSAT-2 Space Segment required in the 8th Plan a start must be made in the third year of the 7th Plan for which an outlay of Rs. 89 crores is required. An outlay of Rs. 93.96 crores have been provided for INSAT Space Segment in the 7th Plan. Out of this Rs. 69.31 crores is provided in the Communication sector and Rs. 24.65 crores in the Science and Technology sector.

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