6th Five Year Plan
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28 || Appendix

Chapter 26:

One of tlie Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution enjoins that the "State will promote with special care the educational and economic interests of weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation." This directive has been reflected in the Five Year Plans which have sought to raise the socio-economic levels of all the people including scheduled castes/scheduled tribes and other weaker sections. However, three decades of development have not had the desired impact on these socially, economically and educationally handicapped groups. Their problems cannot be resolved through the percolation of general economic growth. The majority ot the scheduled castes/scheduled tribes who form one-fourth of the population, are below the poverty line and also face special problems peculiar to them. Continuing to pursue traditional occupations, they are unable to avail of the fruit's of economic growth and participate fully in the process of modernisation. The practice of untouchability against scheduled castes is a special handicap for them and even the few educated groups amongst them are unable to compete for job opportunities created while scheduled tribes still remain largely outside the main stream of development mainly because of their relative isolation and their exploitation by outside agencies. A large proportion of bonded labourers are also scheduled castes. In both these cases, social and economic impoverishment merge to form a single basic factor for backwardness. In spite of Constitutional Directives and number of legislative and executive measures by the Government, their situation has not improved appreciably mainly due to the lack of economic support. Although special programmes were formulated in the previous five year plans for their socio-economic development, the basic problem of their poor economic base has remained almost untouched so far. The Sixth Five Year Plan lays special emphasis on measures to solve their problems.


26.2 The recognised backward classes are scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, denotified, nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes and other castes which are socially and educationally backward. The development programmes for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the earlier Plans, tended to be formulated in an ad-hoc manner without any perspective and were more in the nature of welfare schemes. The special programmes for these groups were conceived as a supplement to the total development effort under general sectors of development. In practice, these special programmes merely substituted the benefits available to the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes under normal development schemes. This resulted in much lower investment for their development than envisaged. A mid-term appraisal of Fourth Plan showed that the fact that Plan outlays for Backward Classes were meant to supplement sectoral programmes, was not fully appreciated. The provision of funds for these programmes rose from Rs. 39 crores in the First Plan to Rs. 327 crores* in the Fifth Plan and a total of Rs. 744 crores was spent till the end of 1978-79. Of this amount 48 per cent was spent on educational 'schemes, 26 per cent on economic schemes and the rest on health, housing, drinking water supply and grants-in-aid to voluntary organisations working amongst scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. In addition, funds have been provided as special central assistance for the Tribal Sub-Plans to supplement the flow of funds from the normal development programmes in the States. The details are in Annexure 26.1 and 26.2

26.3 In terms of physical achievements by 1978-79 more than 59.75 lakhs of backward classes children were receiving stipends and scholarships at pre-matric level annually and another five lakh students at the post-matric level. Thirteen pre-examination training centres had been established to coach candidates appearing in State Civil Services and other subordinate services examinations and nine centres for all-India Services and other Central Services. Most of the economic schemes were in the nature of grants and subsidies to individuals for agricultural inputs, horticulture, fisheries, animal husbandry, cottage industries, training-cum-production centres etc. In 1978-79, a scheme to provide Central assistance to Scheduled Castes Development Corporatior set up by the States was started with Rs. 5 crores. For these Corporations, States and Centre share in equity funds in the ratio of 51 : 49. Programmes ot housing and house-sites to backward classes and specially the scheduled castes also received attention. .Efforts were made to improve the working and living conditions of scheduled castes engaged in hereditary unclean occupations, but these efforts have not yet made much impact. Other programmes included establishment of Tribal Research Institutes for survey and research on tribal problems.

* Includes 1978-79 also

26.4 In the Fifth Plan for the first time a strategy of earmarking funds for the development of scheduled tribes was evolved. For the scheduled tribes, because of their population concentration in specilic areas, the instrument of tribal Sub-Plans was developed to ensure flow of benefits from all sectoral programmes and to provide integrated delivery of services in the tribal areas. In the guidelines to the State Governments, the modalities of quantifying funds from identifiable programmes and where necessary tailoring them to the needs of the tribal people aad areas, were issued. Accordingly, separate sub-plans were formulated covering 63 per cent of the tribal population in the country, in 16 States and 2 Union Territories. The Tribal Sub-Plan areas were divided into 180 Integrated Tribal Development Projects for operational purposes.

26.5 High priority was accorded to protective measures and elimination of exploitation. The areas for exploitation in tribal areas occur in the fields of liquor vending, land alienation, money lending and collection of forest produce. The States enacted laws/regulations to prohibit transfer of land from tribals to non-tribals. In recent years. State Governments have also reviewed the laws and taken appropriate measures to plug the loopholes.

26.6 In the Tribal sub-plan areas an outlay of the order of Rs. 644 crores from States Plans (including Rs. 120 crores Special Central Assistance) was made in the Fifth Plan (1974-78). Of this amount 29 per cent was spent on Agriculture and Allied sectors, 5 per cent on Cooperation, 27 per cent on Irrigation and Power Development, 10 per cent on Transport and Communication, 4 per cent on Industries, 22 per cent on Social and Community Services and 3 per cent on economic and general services. In addition, pockets with 50 per cent or more tribals in a population of 10,000 in a contiguous area's, have been included in the Tribal Sub-Plan Areas from 1979-80 onwards raising the tribal population covered under the Tribal Sub-plan to 75 per cent at the beginning of the Sixth Plan.

26.7 In terms of physical achievements, 5.72 lakh hectares of additional area was brought under minor irrigation, 1.68 lakh hectares under soil conservation, about 8,000 hectares of land was brought under horticulture, approximately 52,000 hectares of land was restored to tribal farmers, more than 8,000-villages provided with water supply and 6,528 villages were electrified.

26.8 The administrative structure created in the tribal sub-plan areas vary from State to State. But a review showed that the delivery system has not been effective in tribal areas because there have been inadequacies in the administrative machinery, lack of sensitive trained management, lack of general preparedness for large investments, deficiency in accounting systems, procedural delays and lack of proper monitoring and evaluation.

26.9 For the scheduled tribes population living outside tribal areas and the scheduled castes who are dispersed among the general population, there was no instrument for ensuring a similar flow of benefits from sectoral development programmes, except under the special programmes of SFDA, DPAP, CAD where 20 per cent of beneficiaries were chosen from these two categories.

26.10 The educated class amongst the scheduled castes, comprising a very small fraction has acquired some vertical mobility through reservations in jobs and other economic opportunities specially created for them. The position of the scheduled castes in general is, however, becoming more vulnerable because of pressure of population and keener competition for limited resources. In the previous plans, the flow of benefits to scheduled castes from programmes under general sectors could not be quantified, even if some benefits did flow, as under SFDA, DPAP, CAD etc. No positive steps were taken to ensure that scheduled castes obtained their share of the benefits of public investment.


26.11 The major objective of the Sixth Plan (1980—85) is to wage an all-out war on poverty and mobilise all our latent energies for the creation of a more dynamic and more equitable society. This will be achieved only if the scheduled castes/scheduled tribes who constitute the bulk of the poorer sections of the population receive their due share from the Plan programmes. In view of this, Special Component Plans will be formulated as Part of various programmes to enable scheduled castes families to cross over the poverty Une within a short period

26.12 The programmes formulated for scheduled castes/scheduled tribes and backward classes can no longer be confined to mere educational incentives, grants 'and subsidies for economic activities, housing, drinking water wells etc. Comprehensive development plans are required to be formulated keeping in view the special problems and needs of each of these communities. Further, these programmes have to be integrated with other general programmes in the context of over all development strategy of the Plan.

26.13 For scheduled tribes the present sub-plan approach which operates through Tribal Development Projects will be continued. Tribal identity and the tribal way of life will be preserved in a manner consistent with their aspirations for development.

26.14 For the scheduled castes, the strategy of Special Component Plan has been adopted particularly for States/Union Territories having large scheduled castes population. The special development programmes for Backward Classes would be in addition to this. These programmes would also provide for educational andT economic schemes to those groups who are not included in either of the schedules but are equally indigent.

26.15 The main thrust of the policy thus for development of the scheduled castes/scheduled tribes during the Sixth Plan is fourfold, namely, (a) integration of services at the delivery point to the beneficiary witli a view to develop self-reliance in him, (b) development of services from the bottom-upwards instead of top-downwards, (c) development of skills to diversify the occupations, specially in the case of scheduled caste, and (d) introduction of latest technology based o'n local materials and local skills to reduce drudgery of workers and also to remove the social stigma attached to their present profession. A simple subsidy based approach has perpetuated dependence and curbed initiative. Hence the whole structure of grants and subsidies would have to be re-examined to ensure that they be so built in the programme that the beneficiary becomes self-reliant over a specified period.

26.16 The main programme is for the generation or augmentation of purchasing power through the schemes like National Rural Employment Programme, the Integrated Rural Development Programme, the programme of agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery, sericulture etc. In addition, the basic needs of these communities would be met from the Minimum Needs Programme.

26.17 All these programmes will be so devised as to eliminate the contractor from outside the area who exploits the weakest and to spread the benefit of the programme and the profit to all members joining the programme. A creche, processing centre or kitchen run by women, health centre, adult education, health and nutrition education, etc. would be integrated with these Programmes. The community facilities and assets like the water supply sources, community centres, street-lighting, other M.N.P.. etc. would preferably be located in the colonies inhabited by the scheduled castes and other backward classes. A study of Anganwadis in the ICDS projects, which are modified version of the Balwadis, for pre-school education for the age-group of 3-6 years, located in the predominantly scheduled caste/scheduled tribe areas has shown benefits accruing to the children beloneins to those communities. But, by and large, it has been observed that Balwadis seldom reach the most backward. The style and pattern of Balwadis may have to be changed to provide simple management through village women and attaching them, if possible. to the schools so that the girls who have to attend to their youneer brothers and children could attend the school while looking after them in the creche-cum-balwadi attached to the school. In order to support a massive nutrition programme each family may be required to bring a handful of uncooked food for each child and some elderly women from the village may look after the provision of nutrition.

26.18 Supervision at delivery level would be made independent by selecting the members of the supervisory committee from amongst the beneficiaries. Training of all officers at different levels would need to be improved. The institutions which have been able to reach their services to the poorest, would be selected for imparting training.

26.19 Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes Corporations need to improve their participation in the venture and provide necessary credit, inputs, marketing and other infrastructure to support these programmes and help in eliminating exploitation.

26.20 In the case of scheduled castes the eradication of untouchability in all forms will be attempted so that social disabilities do not inhibit their economic and social development. Special vigilance cells set up in a lew States for proper and speedy investigation of complaints involving offences against members of the scheduled castes will be extended to others also. Publicity against the practice of untouchability will be intensified.

26.21 Voluntary organisations have an important role to play in the mobilisation of support to various programmes and their effective implementation. Their participation in creating consciousness among backward classes for their developmental needs will be essential. It will be necessary to develop Seadership at different levels so that their urge for betterment is constantly sustained.


26:22 The tribal population of 39 million at the time of 1971 Census increased to 42 million with the Amendment Act of 1976 when the area restriction within a State was removed. The majority of tribal population is concentrated in eastern, central and western part of the country and about 25 per cent are dispersed in small pockets in the southern zone. In the Sixth Plan some further areas of tribal population will be brought within the ambit of Tribal Sub-plans by identifying tribal pockets of 50 per cent concentration in a population of 10,000 in contiguous areas. The coverage ot tribal population is thus likely to go up from 63 per cent as at the end of the Fifth Plan to 75 per cent.

26.23 The Tribal Sub-plans envisage development effort in the identified areas with resources pooled from Ci) outlays from State Plans; (ii) investment from Central Ministries: (iii) special Central assistance: and (iv) institutional finance. An analysis of the investments made in the Fifth Plan shows that out of States' share of funds larger outlays have gone into infrastructural schemes and only 5 per cent of investment was for beneficiary-oriented schemes. Though allocation for infrastructural programmes might help create employment and build facilities, there would be a long time-lag between the infrast-ructural facilities being created and utilisation by the tribals. To expedite this, it is necessary that planning process be re-oriented in favour of family-oriented schemes with a sharper focus in the target group. In family-oriented planning, institutional finance becomes crucial. In the Fifth Plan period, the contribution of financial institutions in tribal areas has been inadequate in relation to need. The same is true for the flow from Central and Centrally Sponsored Schemes. Both these sources would be tapped more fully to promote tribal development.

26.24 So far as administrative machinery in tribal areas is concerned, there has been adverse criticism about the complex pattern of administration. A multiplicity of Government Departments advising beneficiaries for development activities and separation of revenue, judicial and development administration has caused confusion and resulted in lack of confidence in administration. It is necessary to have integration of administrative functions in the area of an Integrated Tribal Development Project. The chain of command can be from the State level through the Commissioner of a Division, Collector of a district, project administrator of ITDP, BDO to block level extension officer and to the village level worker. In the Sixth Plan, therefore, an attempt will to made to have such unified administration.

26.25 The training of personnel for tribal areas and provision of necessary facilities like housing, health and education for them will be accorded high priority. Often suitable personnel is not available at the field level in remote tribal areas. In such situation the local youth with at least minimum educational qualifications would be selected and given required training for assisting in developmental activities.

26.26 The programme content of the tribal sub-plans would require to increase the productivity levels of agriculture and horticulture, animal husbandry, forestry, small and village industries and mark-keting. These would need to be linked with improved post-harvest technology. The LAMPS would be improved to provide credit and marketing facilities. Another aspect which would be dealt with is transfer of technology and in doing so it would be the endeavour not to destroy economic base of the tribals but gradually introduce improved techniques of agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry, etc. Resettlement of shifting cultivators amongst tribals in 233 Blocks over 62 districts would be improved by provision of a package of services required. Education is key to the development of human resource along with provision of basic amenities like safe drinking water, adequate shelter and health care and an optimal leve] of nourishment. Their s'p'ecial health problems like sickle cell anaemia, goitre and other endemic ailments would be tackled. A substantial programme for control of leprosy would be taken up.

26.27 For the Tribals outside the sub-plan area and pockets of concentration, the area approach of development would not be feasible. Integrated schemes of infrastructural development like School, PHCs, etc. and of family-benefit would be taken up. These programmes would require to be built into the general rural development programmes.

26.28 Formulation of project reports and programmes for the primitive tribes would receive special attention. A separate organisational structure would be created with careful selection of personnel to deal with their problems sympathetically. Arrangements for monitoring and concurrent evaluation would be strengthened.


26.29 The population of the scheduled castes in the country is about 100 million. They have very few assets and are generally dependent on agricultural labour, leather work and other low-income occupations. Of working population of scheduled castes, 52 per cent are agricultural labourers and conversely 33 per cent of agricultural labourers are scheduled castes. Most bonded labourers are scheduled castes. The few cultivators amongst scheduled castes are share-croppers or subsistence farmers. Others mostly pursue traditional occupations and are unable to avail themselves of the new employment opportunities. Their literacy level is only 14.7 per cent as compared to the all-India level of 33.80 per cent (excluding scheduled castes and tribes). Female literacy among them is as low as 6.44 per cent against all-India female literacy level of 22.5 per cent (excluding scheduled castes and scheduled tribes). In spite of their adverse conditions they contribute significantly to the sustenance and growth of the production system of the country.

26.30 The main thrust for the development of scheduled castes has to come from every sector of development and by every Department and Agency. The need-based programmes to be formulated for the scheduled castes would keep in focus target groups in the occupational categories. The core programme for economic development would lay emphasis on land development and agricultural production, animal husbandry including dairy, sheep', goat, poultry, piggery development, leather work, weaving, other cottage and village industries, fisheries and small scale and tiny industries. In implementing all these programmes, availability of institutional finance is crucial. It is envisaged that the Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporations would play a catalytic role in channelising inputs, credit as well as funds under DRI. An additionality of Special Central Assistance is being provided to stimulate and supplement the efforts made by the States. Such Corporations are functioning in 17 States. States with a substantial population of scheduled castes where these have not yet been formed, would be encouraged to set up such Corporations.


26.31 The special programme for backward classes are basically supplementary programmes. The special provisions for scheduled castes/scheduled tribes and other backward classes are made under this sector for education, health, nutrition etc. supplementing the normal programmes of other sectors. The main emphasis will be on raising literacy and improving the educational levels of backward classes through schemes of pre and post-matric scholarships, educational incentives like provision of books, stationery, uniforms, coaching classes, boarding grants, hostel facilities, etc. The problem of first generation learners amongst scheduled castes/scheduled tribes is lack of guidance and encouragement from parents specially at High School level. A number of States have initiated steps to increase enrolment and retain children in school. Greater emphasis is being placed on girls' education and checking drop outs. This will be done by giving them special coaching programmes to enable them overcome their environmental handicaps and educational backwardness. By 1985 it is envisaged that about 105 lakh children of scheduled castes/scheduled tribes and other backward classes would be benefiting from stipends/ scholarships and other incentives at pre-matric level and that 8 lakh scheduled caste/scheduled tribe students would be receiving post-matric scholarships.'• Hostel facilities for scheduled caste and scheduled* tribe girls under the Centrally Sponsored schemes will be increased. In order to improve the employment prospects of educated scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and to fulfil the quota in jobs reserved for them, there are pre-examination training centres for those appearing for all-India and State Service Examinations. The capacity of these centres will be expanded.

26.32 Special attention will be given to modernise scavenging, flaying and tanning, etc., to remove the stigma attached to these unclean occupations through improved technology. Educational incentives will be given to the children of families involved in these activities and alternative avenues of occupation will be provided in order to improve their living and working conditions.

26.33 For economic improvement of scheduled castes/scheduled tribes, funds provided under the backward classes will be utilised mainly to give subsidies/grants to assist scheduled castes/schedulsd tribes trained under various trades and crafts in Krishi Udyog Kendras and help modernise their skills to make them more competitive.

26.34 Voluntary organisations which have contributed to the welfare of scheduled castes and tribes -'through such programmes as running of hostels, ash-ram schools, dispensaries and maternity and child welfare centres, training centres, propaganda and publicity for Civil Rights Act, etc., will continue to receive grants-in-aid from Central and State Governments.

Annexure 26.1 Outlay and Expenditure in the Successive Plans for Special Programmes for Backward Classes
(Rs. crores)

Plan Outlay Expenditure
First Plan 39-00 30-00
Second Plan 90-00 79-00
Third Plan 114-00 99-14
1966—69 62-00 68-49
Fourth Plan 171-29 141-00
Fifth Plan (1974—78) 227-89 226-00
1978-79 99-09 99-94
1979-80 98-84 86-40

Outlay and Expenditure in Fifth Plan 1974—78, 1978-79 and1979-80 -Tribal Sub-Plan
(Rs. crores)

Outlay Expenditure
State Plan

Special Central Assistance

Total State Plan Special Central Assistance Total
1974—78 523-64 120-00 643-64 469-83 119-31 589-14
1978-79 332-44 70-00 402-44 289-61 70-00* 359-61
1979-80 394-67 70-00 464-67 382-45 70-00* 452-45


Annexure 26.2 Sixth Plan Outlays : Development of Backward Classes
(Rs. crores)

Fifth Plan 74—78 (Exp.) Annual Plan 78-79 (Exp.) Annual Plan 79-80 (Anti.Exp.) Sixth Plan (Tent)
States and UTs. Centre* Total States and UTs. Centre* Total States and UTs. Centre* Total States and UTs Centre* Total
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)
Education 67-86 57-50 125-36 42-90 20-60 63-50 26-66 9-85 36-51 349 157-50 506-50
Economic Dev. . 29-88 29-88 15-05 0-50 15-55 19-42 12-24 31-66 209 65 274
Health, Housing and others . 67-10 2-82 69-92 19-09 1-34 20-43 15-95 1-42 17-37 153 17-50 170-50
Direction 0-84 0-84 0-46 0-46 0-86 0-86 9-30 9-30
Total . 165-68 60-32 226-00 77-50 22-44 99-94 62-89 23-51 86-40 720-30 240-00 960-30
Special Central Assistance for Tribal Sub-Plan Areas @ 119-31 119.31 70-00 70-00 70-00 70-00 470 470
Special Central Assistanc for Dev. of Scheduled Caste? @ 5-00 5-00 600 600
165-68 179-63 345-31 77-50 92-44 169-94 62-89 98-51 161-40 720-30 1310 2030-30

* Figures given for Central Sector are amounts released only as per Min. of Home Affairs.
@ This is only the Central additive. The major funds flow to the Tribal Sub-Plans and Special Component Plans mainly from the general sectors of the State Plans. In addition, resources also flow from institutional finance and under various programmes of the Central Ministries.

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