6th Five Year Plan
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28 || Appendix

Chapter 21:

Education, broadly perceived as a seamless con-tinum of life long learning, is essential for human resource development at every age level. In a pack-ay of developmental inputs available to the community, education should form an effective means to improve the status and character of living patterns of the people, help intellectual, social and emotional development of the individuals and to enable 'them to meet their basic needs of daily life. The long range goal of educational planning is then to make available diverse net-works of facilities and programmes for education, combining formal and non-formal modes of learning. It should enable all citizens to acquire literacy, numeracy, computational skills, basic understanding of the surrounding world and functional skills o'f relevance to daily life and to local environment. The emphasis in our planning efforts would thus shift from provision of inputs and expansion of facilities in general terms to results to be achieved and tasks to be performed with specific reference to target groups of population, particularly the socially disadvantaged.

21.2 Programmes of human resource development have a four-fold perspective; (i) to prepare individuals for assuming their role as responsible citizens; (ii) to develop in them scientific outlook, awareness of their rights and responsibilities as well as a consciousness of the processes of development, (iii) to sensitise them to ethical, social and cultural values which go to make an enlightened nation; and (iv) to impart to them knowledge, skills and attitudes which would enable them to ^contribute to the productive programmes in the national development. In the realisation of this, educational system and programmes have to be directed towards a set of goals and tasks. Among these would be the following:

  1. to guarantee to all equality of opportunity for education for improving the quality of life and their participation in the tasks of promoting the general well-being of the society;
  2. to afford to all young people and adults, irrespective of age, the means for ample self-fulfilment within the framework of harmonious development which reflects the needs of the community to which they belong;
  3. to provide for a continuous process of lifelong education for physical, intellectual and cultural development of people and for inculcating in them capabilities to cope with and influence social change;
  4. to establish dynamic and beneficial linkages between education, employment and development with due regard for the economic and social aims of the community;
  5. to promote respect for, and belief in values of national integration, secularism, democracy and dignity of labour;
  6. to sensitise academic communities to the problems of poverty, illiteracy and environmental degradation through extension services and organised participation in poverty reduction and environment improvement programmes;
  7. to facilitate development, mobilisation, organisation and utilisation of the youth to involve and participate in the process of national development; and
  8. to support the growth of arts, music, poetry, dance, and drama, including folk art, as instruments of culture, education and national integration.

21.3 The approach to achieve these objectives will be characterised by flexibility and diversity to suit varying needs and circumstances and by a stress on coordination of efforts, resources and programmes of the different sectors and agencies. The need to maintain high quality of education, aiming at academic excellence, and its relevance to national development objectives would be articulated throughout the system,


21.4 Despite a network of over 6.5 lakhs schools and colleges, the employment of over 3 million teachers and an annual budget of the order of Rs. 3000 crores, it has not been possible so far for the education system to achieve the goal of universal education of all children upto the age of 14 years as enshrined to the Directive Principles of the Constitution. The total enrolment in elementary education has increased from 223 lakhs in classes I-VIII in 1950-51 to around 905 lakhs during 1979-80. Nevertheless, for every three children enrolled in primary and middle schools, one other eligible child is left behind. Over 80 per cent of the children not enrolled so far are confined to a dozen States who have not been in a position to allocate the necessary economic resources to achieve the goal of universalisation according to the present system of elementary education.

21.5 There are also socially disadvantaged groups, such as the economically poor, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, whose children are on the periphery of the schooling system. Ahout 38 per cent of the scheduled caste children (20 per cent of the boys and 56 per cent of the girls) and 56 per cent ol the scheduled tribe children (49 per cent of the boys and 70 per cent of the girls) are yet to receive elenwntary education. As revealed by the Fourth Educational Survey, the non-availability of schools is not a major constraint in this regard. But socio-economic compulsions in families, particularly in rural areas and among the weaker sections, not-too-relevant nature of curricular programmes and lack of essential facilities in schools seem to be some of the more important factors contributing to the slow progress. Even the existing facilities for elementary education are not optimally utilised, overaged and underaged children account for around 20 per cent of the enrolment and nearly 64 per cent of 'the children who are enrolled in class T, drop out by the time they complete class V Th's. represents economic loss in resource utilisation, educational inefficiency and low productivity, not to mention the long-term social loss to the individual child and the family on account of the in-ooanplete development of the former's educational career.

21.6 In the areas of secondary and higher education, facilities have been expanded during the last three decades. Nonetheless, the reforms for qualitative improvement and system reorganisation, as envisaged in the National Policy on Education (1968), are yet to be completed effectively. This is particularly so for the integration of practical aspects in the educational programmes and for planned growth of programmes directed towards gainful employment to be implemented in close cooperation with all the developmental agencies, Inter-sectoral linkages are yet to be brought about and coordination established betwaen work places, schools and development activities for fostering appropriate manpower development programmes.

This has resulted, among other things, in an undesirable grow'h of facilities for general higher education, specially at the under-graduate stage in arts, commerce and humanities, and in the consequent increase in incidence of unemployment among the educated. It has also not been possible to evolve systems approach to educational planning and development aiming, inter-alia, at flexibility and mobility arasiig different types and levels of education and at ayxi-misation of benefits flora, educational investment for rapid progress in the different sectors of nationai^co-nomy. This has undermined the role and capability of the higher education system to promote andjinain-tain excellence and high standards in academic programmes, encourage pure scholarship and extwd the-frontiers of knowledge as well as to p.irtieSpate ia national S and T activities and develop nataonAl scientific and technical manpower.

21.7 It may, no doubt, be necessary to create additional infrastructure to ensure the future'" growth of the educational system but this would have to be appropriate to the needs of, and based on a careful scrutiny in, specific areas and sectors and for identified target groups, particularly those wfich are in the danger of getting left behind because of their special circumstances. The existing institutions and programmes need to be consolidated and put to optimum Hse to serve the goals of development in the community as a whole. Provision of suitable educational facilities in backward areas and Tor the deprived groups. and promotion, of non-formal programmes at alflevels incorporating plurality of models and diversity of patterns are equally important. The organisation of new facilities must also be linked to the actual, toeeds and made relevant to local environment and learaiag requirements, taking note of the specific .characteristics of the prospective beneficiaries.

21.8 The importance of educational planning afid management at all levels has to be emphasised in this context and capabilities built,for these-tasks. Educational planning must effectively be coordinated with manpower planning at ai! stages and aspects of skill development. Adequate attention has lu be given to optimisation of benefits from the existing investments and facilities. The failure to achieve a larger measure of equalisation of educational Opportunities, both in regard to access and achievement. f an aspect which requires closer attention. Concerted efforts are called Tor to reach the socially handicapped and economically weaker sections of the sociey such as, women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, landless labourers etc. The imbalances which have developed in the system between the rich and urban level on the one hand and the poor and rural level on the other have to be rectified so that enrolment rates in elementary education of the socially deprivec groups and the general population are brought on pa. at least by the end of the Sixth Plan. It is essential also to transform the system of education qualitatively in terms of its value content, standards and relevance to life. The role of education to promote humanistic outlook, sense of brotherhood and a commitment to ethical and cultural values needs to be re-emphasised.

21.9 The importance of educational technology has to be adequately provided for greater efficiency and effectiveness and wider reach of the educational programmes. This would be made possible with the launcffing of the INSAT. The possibility of using modera technology to take education, especially at the elementary stage, to all sections of population in a shorter frame of time has to be capitalised for achieving minimum basic education of all people within a, decade. All these will require the strengthening, :rsorientation and integration of non-formal and formal programmes of educational development and bringing about inter-sectoral and inter-agency coordination at different levels for furtherance of specific aims of human resource development.


Early Childhood Education

21.10 From the stand point of priorities within the field of education, importance should be attached, in terms of coverage, to the young child, children in the school going age-groups and those among the socially under-privileged \groups. Attention should be paid to all young children during their crucial development years upto 5 years. This early childhood stage is the period of maximum learning and intellectual development of the child and hence of great potential educational significance. The present pre-school child care programmes are limited to the distribution or food supplements and routine health cover; these contribute very little to the personality development of the child, especially to its intellectual, social and emotional growth. The concept of learning and development through play and joyful activities should be articulated, across age-group, through an all round programme which should be comprehensive in scope, integrated in nature and reinforced over long-time. Organisation of a creche for children in the 0—3 age-group and! or a balwadi for 3—6 age group, with provision Tor educational toys, play equipment, learning materials and books for children's reading etc., would be appropriate for this purpose. The educational component of such a package of services would no doubt be significant.

21.11 The approach in the Sixth Plan is characterised by a concern for the all round development of children, especially those from underprivileged sections and poverty groups who may suffer serious consequences in tfie future because of negligence at the present stage of life. Such a preparatory programme would, additionally, contribute towards universalisa-tion of enrolment and retention of children in elementary education in due course. The programme is envisaged initially to serve the needs of children in the rural and the urban slum areas, based on economic means and social and educational backwardness of the population groups. The target for the Sixth Plan would be at least one early childhood education centre in every community development block. It would be advantageous to develop these centres as adjuncts to village primary schools wherever possible. The resources and inputs of programmes under health, nutrition, social welfare, integrated rural development and education, which are presently devoted to child, family and community welfare would be coordinated for this purpose , with flexibility and freedom built in by allowing various agencies to undertake programmes within a common framework. The services of suitable persons from the community, especially women and the educated unemployed youth, could be used to support them. Necessary pre-deployment training of the workers in the field would be arranged on a selective basis through existing teacher training institutions. The approach at this stage of education would be entirely non-formal and siress laid on the inculcation or sense perception? among the children, through innovative use of locally available resources in the community and the environment. The National-Council of Educational Research and Training, in collaboration with similar agencies in the States would help in developing the learning materials and aids both for teacher training and for programme implementation.

Elementary Education

21.12 It is proposed that the programme of univer-salisation of elementary education would be given serious consideration, especially in the educationally backward States and for reaching the socially disad-vantaged who constitute the bulk of the non-attending children and of the drop-outs. The Sixth Plan assigns the highest priority to this programme which would continue to be a part of the minimum needs programme. While many States have reached 100 per cent enrolment of boys at the primary stage (classes I-V), some are lagging in respect of boys and many in regard to girls. Although the objective is to attain the universalisation upto the age of 14, operationally a strategy needs to be worked out to achieve this is in two distmct stages over a ten year period. Accordingly, the approach in the Sixth Plan is for all the States, which are yet to universalise the primary education, to reach universalisation of primary education (classes I-V), upto th and age of 11 years, in the next five years, and, in case of other States, to achieve a substantial increase in the enrolment at the middle stage (classes VI-VIII of children upto 14 years so as to move towards the goal as fast as possible.

21.13 The approach to universalisation of elementary education will cover (i) intensified use of existing facilities, including the adjustment of schooling hours, which would not be more than 3 hours a day, according to local conditions, (ii) provision of new facilities which would be economically viable and educationally relevant, and (iii) promotion of non-formal system of learning. Programmes for non-formal learning would be organised and oriented towards target groups and decentralised in regard to their contents, course duration, place and Iiours of learning and pattern of instructions. However, there would be a basic minimum package of inputs identified by the public educational authorities which would have correspondence to the formal system of education. In both formal and non-formal systems, the emphasis would be on the retention of students and effective delivery of services to children. It is also essential to ensure appropriate incentives like free midday meals, supply of uniforms and learning materials, and compensation to the families of scheduled caste girls towards the opportunity cost involved. Efforts should be made by the State Governments to introduce measures with a view to eliminate wastage and reduce drop-out in elementary education.

21.14 As part of the efforts to retain children and promote the internal efficiency of the system as well as achieve equalisation of educational opportunities, measures for improvement in the quality of education becomes very important' The curriculum would be developed with the goal of imparting necessary levels of literacy, numeracy, comprehension and functional skills related to local socio-economic factors and environment needs. It would suit flexible models, with provision or diversification and dexterous balance between common basie goal and varying methodology. The basic objective would stress curriculum as an instrument for inculcating humanistic values, capacity for tolerance, promotion of national integration, scientific attitude and temper and individual capability for learning from the surrounding world.

21.15 Keeping in view the progress already made in the different States in expanding elementary education and the feasibility limits of accelerated growth in the educationally backward States, it is proposed to lay down specific targets Statewise for the Sixth Plan. It is estimated that universalisation of the primary stage of education would imply additional enrolment or about 170 lakh children in classes I-V over the next five years or an average annual rate of enrolment of 34 lakh children. In recent years, however, the rate of enrolment has approximately been of 20 lakhs annually and if the above targets are/to be achieved, the educationally backward States of Assam, Bihar, Madhyn Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal would have to step up their present rates of enrolment considerably, in some cases more than double if not three-fold. It is, therefore, proposed that the additional targets should be projected realistically in individual States and Union Territories consistent with the ultimate object of completing the universalisation programme by 1990.

21.16 In the middle stage of elementary education for children in the age-group 11—14, the population to be covered to achieve a target of 50 per cent in the Sixth Plan would be about 63 lakh or an annual enrolment of 13 lakh on an average. The achievements so far has been at the rate of 7 lakhs per annum. Those States which have already attained 100 per cent enrolment in the primary classes would have to endeavour in the Sixth Plan to reach higher rates of enrolment in the 11—14 years age groups but, even then, it would require the doubling of the present enrolment rates. This, however, needs to be accepted as a desirable objective and challenge during the Sixth Plan, without which the goal of universal elementary education cannot be attained even by the end of the century.

21.17 Taking the proposals for primary and middle stages together, the additional enrolment in full time elementary education during l981 as hereunder:

Table 21.1 Targets of Expansion of Full-time Elementary Education—1980-85

Age Group/ Classes

Enrolment (in lakhs)

Percentage of population in the age-group
1979-80 1984-85 (Target) 1979-80 1984-85(Target)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Boys 438 485 100.2 108.1
Girls 272 342 65.9 81.5
Total 710 827 83.6 95.2
Boys 130 166 52.0 63.1
Girls 65 92 27.7 36.8
Total 195 258 40.2 50.3
Boys 568 651 82.3 91.7
Girls 337 434 52.2 65.0
Total 905 1085 67.8 78.8
The Statewise projections are given in Aimexures.

21.18 Non-formal education programmes have been initiated in the States recently and these would need to be developed and expanded, in the light of experience gained, to cover all those children who would require, and benefit only by, such modes of learning. It would be unrealistic to lay down any specific target for this purpose but it is expected that about 80 lakh children would be covered during the Sixth Plan.

21.19 The provision of non-formal education requires considerable imagination and innovation. The bcate Institutes of Education, in collaboration with the National Council of Educational Research and Training, would draw up feasible programmes for this purpose outlining the curriculum, syllabus and reading material for Uiese courses and for the training of teaching personnel. The Centrally sponsored scheme to help the educationally backward States with financial assistance for programmes of non-formal elementary education would be continued.

21.20 It is proposed to establish special monitoring arrangements at the Centre and the State level to review progress of elemeniary education, particularly of the target groups, which are yet to be provided with universal elementary education. Their educational needs would be looked into according to a larger perspective of the families socio-economic conditions and problems and, wherever necessary, a family approach would be adopted in conjunction witn^weliare schemes of other sectors and agencies. Apaist from providing schooling facilities, they would be supplied with mid-day meals, free books, uniforms and stationery as well as attendance scholarships, as incentives, which would be coordinated and extended with a'- focus oa their human resource development includiris education. These children would also be-gives reaiediai. coaching programmes to enable them to overcome their environmental handicaps and educational backwardness. Programmes such as those de-signeA to promote learning while earning, would also be promoted to overcome economic reasons hampering their educational development. It would be the specific responsibility of educational administration and planning to ensure that these groups are brought into the loid of national educational apparatus as soon as possible through appropriately designed strategies and disaggregated and relevant programmes.

21.21 Provision is made for construction of satisfactory primary and middle school buildings and class-rooms, supply of physical facilities and kits, enhancing the teachers' compe tones and for the updating and extensive use of educational technique for higher efficiency and greater effectiveness. Keeping in view, however, the large magnitude of the problem of school buildings, the Plan provides only a modest outlay in the State Sector; it envisages continuous efforts to achieve economy in construction costs, among other things, by increasing use of locally available building macerials and functionally suitable designs.

Adult Education

21.22 The Sixth Plan lays emphasis on minimum essential education to all citizens, irrespective of their age, sex and residence. The approach to achieve this objective would be characterised by flexibility, inter-sectoral cooperation and inter-agency coordination. Techniracy would be adopted as the major instrument for the spread of literacy, 'numeracy and practical skills relevant to the economic activities of the people concerned. It would be supported by post-literacy, continuing education through a network of rural libraries as well us instructional programmes through mass conimiinication media, particularly after the INSAT is launched to its orbit.

21.23 Non-formal education for adults, particularly in the productive age-group 15—35 years, would receive priority in the Sixth Plan, in view of its potential for immediate impact in raising the level ol productivity in the economy. The programmes of adult education, which had been initiated in the previous Plans' and which form part of the minimum needs programme of elementary education would be made more effective and extended in cooperation with the other developmental activities and the employment agencies. The programmes would aim at extending appropriate educational support to the concerned groups of individuals and development departments through carefully designed group-specific and work-based curricula which would be integrated as part of development activity. I"hey would also take advantage of tne cultural and other group characteristics in tne process of involving tne learner groups lo participate in, and benefit from, adult education programmes.

21.24 While designing this programme, the lot of the weaker sections hkc women, scncduied castes, scheduled tribes and agricultural labourers as well as slum dwellers would be given priority. Fhe strategy in these cases would be me development ot methous and contents suited to the varied needs and situations, thus promoting flexibility in die- programme and in the means of delivery of education. It would also help to involve voluntary agencies of established repute; such agencies have snown a great capacity to innovate effectively and their involvement will be useful where culture-specific improvisations are required.

Secondary Education

21.25 Secondary and higher secondary education are important terminal stages in the system of general education and provide a first stage for linking education wi'th the world of work. It is at this point that options are exercised by the youth to enter ihe world ot employment or to go for technical training or to pursue higher education. With the expansion of the base of education at the elementary stage, increasing number of students, including a large number of first generation learners, would reach secondary education. Facilities have to be provided tor their education since such education is the only means of social mobility and economic independence, particularly among the socially disadvantaged. Care has to be taken to ensure tnat secondary education also prepares them tor a long-term career as part of the stock of national man power. Keeping these in view, facilities for secondary education would Have to and e extended to rural and backward areas and access provided to the weaker and more backward sections of the people, particularly the first generation learners.

21.26 The importance of secondary education to prepare man power for economic development would stress the need lo pay special attention to the quality of education at this stage. This would cover, apart from improving the Internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of i;s products, updating the curriculum and syllabus, production of better text-books and instructional material and creating in the young generation an awareness of the emerging development perspective and associated technologies in fields such as, energy conservation, population stabilisation and environment protection. At the same time, they should not be alienated emo-tionaily or culturally from the society.

21.27 Science teaching would be strengthened and laboratory equipment provided, both for experimentation and demonstration. The programme for supply 'of science kits at the primary and middle stages would be expanded and an appropriate kit for secondary education designed, produced and supplied to high and higher secondary schools. The curriculum in science and mathematics would con.inue to be reviewed and upgraded and pro-service as well. as in-service training of teachers in all subjects promoted on an extensive scale. The educational system would also recognise the needs of the exceptionally talented children in the society and give them opportunities for taking up special courses or programmes of studies suited to their talent and thus nurture the valuable latent talent as a national resource.

21.28 One of the important links between education and development is provided by manpower development through vocationalisation of secondary education related to employment. This has to be carefully designed, based on detailed surveys of existing and potential work' opportunities and of available educational and training facilities. It should als'o keep in view the specific roles and responsibilities of the different agencies and ensure coordination at the operational level between the developmental programmes and the educational system. Such a diffe-rentia.i'on would normally commence after the secondary stage and may cover varying periods depending upon the vocational area, groups of occupations and the nature and level of skills needed. It envisages deepening of practical bias m the school education to. be supplemented by appropriate apprenticeship in actual field, farm or factory situations. It is noi necessary to follow a rigid sequence in the order of acquiring the several skills and it should be possible to supplement exclusive vocational training courses with necessary educational component. In tins way, suitable linkages need to be established within a system for occupational mobility and career development over one's employment/working life. For the provision of relevant practical skills, agencies like Krish'i Udyog and Van Vikas Kendras and other vocational training centres would be utilised, particularly for learning by doing. Similarly, experienced craftsmen and prac'i-tioners of the arts would be used for imparting operational skills without undue insistence on pedagogic certificates. Wherever new facilities are to be created, they would be located, to the maximum extent possible, in the rural areas.

Higher Education

21.29 Extensive and widespread facilities have already been created for higher education and the main thrust in the Sixth Plan would be to coordinate them and maximise their utilisation. There is sufficient scope for and possibility of, greater use of the infra-structural physical facilities and resources which might need minimum additional support to make them critically viable. The existing imbalances in the level of development of universities among themselves as well is in relation to -colleges would have to be examined for suitable remedial programmes and selective support in keeping with their requirements, potential and scope. The problem of non-viable institutions, with low en,ro'imen:s and inadequate provision of facilities, as well as proliferation of such institutions, offering general academic courses, would need to be tackled with determination, both in order to avoid increasing unemployment among the graduates as well as to make better use of the available, economic resources for educational development. At the same time, the problems of first generation learners, particularly the socially disadvantaged sections, for whom higher education provides a transition, opportunity and challenge in terms of life perspectives and socio-economic aspirations of the community would need to be harmonized into the academic pattern. Personalised guidance and higher education would be required for them keeping in view their emphasis on human resource development as well as in order to enable them to avail ot employment opportunities specifically earmarked in the several sectors.

21.30 The improvement of quality of higher education would receive special consideration. The redesigning of under-graduate courses and their restructuring to improve employment orientation would be extended during the Sixth Plan. In the area of post-graduate education and research emphasis would be placed on promoting the research and development capability of the university system and on inter-disciplinary studies, particularly in new emerging areas of knowledge, relevant to national development objectives. Research within the university s'ystem would be coordinated with the national science and technology efforts, according to which areas to which research funds are to be channelised would be clearly identified and close col laboration realised on a structured basis among uai versifies, national laboratories and other research organisations. The necessary infrastructural facilities such as sophisticated instrumentation services, coin puters and libraries would be made available to the. universities on a regional basis.

21.31 The institutions of higher learning would be encouraged and enabled to involve themselves with the development activities in the community and proi-vide requisite srpport through extension services of students and faculties. Such extension work would be considered as part of the normal academic work of the students and teachers, and not as social service. Universities would not only extend frontiers of knowledge but also supply such knowledge to solve problems of the community on whom they depend.

21.32 The Sixth Plan realises the importance of education to development and envisages concerted effort to forge beneficial links among education, employment and economic development. A committee of experts has already been set up by Planning Commission to examine the several aspects of the issues involved in detail. According to them, it is necessary that educational programmes are related to manpower profiles, existing and needed, in the development and occupational areas/sectors and provide for adequate levels and scope of pre-employment knowledge and skills, as also for continuing education for those who are already employed. The entire educational system must, in fact, respond to this important aspect of human resource development as one of the major purposes of education is to prepare the students for a gainful working life with a capability of learning to match new job requiremen-s. There are, no doubt, deeper reasons for unemployment among the educated but, to some extent, the mis-match between education and employment is due to the kind of education and training which students get in traditional courses. The introduction of work experience and deepening of practical bias in secondary schools, as proposed, are no doubt, programmes in the desired direction. The higher education has also a major responsibility in this regard which would require (a) restructuring of under-graduate courses to make them purposeful and also terminal for those who would seek employment, (b) provision for vocational courses leading to employment and structured for certificate or diploma, rather than an academic degree and (c) promotion at post-graduate level research on practical problems of local and regional relevance as well as on fundamental research. The minimum objective of such a programme would be to make the first degree courses more relevant and responsive to the development needs of the community and link education with work/ field/practical experience and productivity by introducing students to relevant application areas of the subjects of their study. These will have the advantage ot achieving a greater sensitisation of the academic community to the problem o'f poverty, illiteracy and environmental degradation.

21.33 It would be necessary to formulate specific work plans to develop these programme areas and guidelines are being prepared for this purpose by the above committee of experts. These would be considered for implementation in the Sixth Plan by the universities and other appropriate authorities and necessary modifications made in their statues to enable them do so.

21.34 To ensure effective linkages as envisaged, il would be necesasry to set up an institutional framework within the university system. One of the ways to achieve this would be the establishment, in every university, of a statutory authority, say, a research (or education) and development council with representation from the university, community and users. Such a council would plan relevant activities and monitor them; it could also be effective for contact and communication with Government Departments, public sector undertakings, and trade and industry. The guidance and counselling services to facilitate proper selection ot subjects at the time of entry and of remedial courses would be provided, particularly for the benefit of the first generation learners from weaker and socially handicapped sections of the society. To meet the special needs of women, who may have interruption in their studies; universities would ensure that facilities are provided to enable them to continue their education at the stage they left and complete the same for the final academic awards.

21.35 The various innovative educational programmes which are intended to aid developmental activities would require close coordination and joint action between the educational system and the developmental departments and sectors. For example, the work experience programme would require the secondment of students to places of work which come within the purview of agencies other than educational. The vocationalisation programmes at the higher secondary stage require coordinated action of all educational and training facilities and the services of developmental agencies for suitable placement for apprenticeship and/or employment of students. It is expected that the district level employment generation councils and district development centres, envisaged in the Sixth Plan, would provide a suitable forum to channelise the requirements of the minimum needs programme and the health for all schemes towards the capabilities and facilities of the universities and the higher education system. By virtue of its far reaching social significance, this should deserve to be taken up for implementation jointly by educational institutions and the concerned agencies.

21.36 Beyond the district and sub-regional levels, it would be conducive for the forging of effective linkage if, at the State level, an appropriate forum is set up to ensure close coordination among education, planning and executive efforts. It would be desirable also to set up an inter-university council or board tQ bring together all the universities located within a State and the governmental agencies to involve them collectively in respect of programmes which could be planned and activated in a complementary mannei. There is aiso a need for continuous feed back from the users of the products of the university system, particularly regarding results of research, relevance and matching of manpower skills and knowledge in actual field conditions and context. Such an interaction would enable the university system to acquire the necessary information and data base about the needs of the community, public undertakings, trade and industry, and the governmental agencies. Problem-oriented research and investigations of immediate application to social progress could be tackled through such cooperative endeavours. Inter-sectoral coordination between education and related sectors of health, food and nutrition, employment, housing and environment is indeed necessary. As stated earlier, education in respect of health and other basic needs of society should become an integral part of the general education system and all forms of formal, incidental and non^formal learning should support these programmes according to a scientific system.

Youth Development

21.37 Youih in the country constitutes a vast human resource which is characterised by idealism and zeal, active habits, positive attitude towards service to others, an urge to be self-reliant and a willingness to explore newer and non-contormist approaches to societal problems. If properly harnessed and utilised, the youth could therefore be a powerful instrument of social, cultural and economic change. There are four major aspects of the youth to be considered in a coordinated manner, viz., development, mobiiisatior, organisation and utilisation, to promote their involvement and participation in the nation building activities. The general approach to, and details of, an imtsgarted strategy for youth programmes need tu be considered in a wider perspective than the educational system because the problems of youth relate to moro profound and broader issues like personality development, transition from childhood into adulthood, gainful employment, suitable development of their spirit for adventure and opportunities for community service.

21.38 It is, no doubt, important that the several programmes, which are in operation under the different agencies, need to be coordinated among themselves and at different levels into an integrated conceptual framework. This would help ensuring better coverage, enlargement 6f targets, and a multiplier effect of the ongoing programmes. It is also important that the tasks to be assigned to the youth are made discreet and tangible and the youth given appropriate training in selected institutions before they are deployed on these tasks. The details of these aspects would need to be gone into, harmonised and a strategy evolved in the form of a National Youth Policy. The guiding principles in this regard should be (a) to provide greater equality of opportunity to all among the youtB, (b) to liberate 'their talent which is now lost to the society, (c) to ensure a higher average level of relevant basic skills and education through work and service, (d) 'to enable a smooth transition of the youth from childhood through adolescence to adulthood, as well from schools to the world of work and service, and (e) to channelise their energies, idealism and healthy aspirations towards developmental tasks, projects and programmes.

21.39 Insofar as the programmes of educational agencies are concerned, they need to be strengthened and extended in scope and operation. Institutions like the Nehru Yuvak Kendras, Yuvak Mandals and sirailar bodies linked to the Gram Sabhas would be utifeed as the 'base of operations at the district level and provided with professional inputs and support for the asks to be done. They would also have an inbuilt mechanism for feed back, assimilation of new conce-rts 'and ideas and to extend activities in keeping with tie changing area development perspectives. The Na'ionil Service Scheme for the student youth would be reviewed in order to make provision for real participation o" students in development programmes, availing of tne proposed non-formal manning structures envisaged in the Sixfh Plan. These would also be coalesced with programmes of other departments and agencies aid the progress monitored with reference to specific beiefits and targets pertaining to the participating youtl. There is also a need to decentralise the efforts and o set them in the context of local environmental condtions and needs as oerceived by, and acceptable ti, the community in general and the youth in particular.


21.40 Tie objectives of development of sports, games including indigenous games and physical education wotid be to enlarge the mass base for improving nationJ physical well-being and to nromote excellence in competitive events. These will require suitable prognmme for augmenting physical facilities, training o.f personnel, and spotting and nurturing of talent. Th existing programmes for training of coaches an< physical education teachers would be sfrengthen'c to improve the sources available with educationfl institutions, sports federations a'nd others. It is necesary also to strengthen the existing schemes of s"otti:g promising talent in different sports disciplines at a very young age for nurturing it in'o levels of excellence. For this purpose consideration would be given to the creation of special facilities in selected institutions for promoting sports talent alongwith normal requirement of general education. At the village and rural area level, full utilisation would be made of existing facilities and institutions and indigenous games supported with a view to build up sporting attitude qualities and talent starting with the village children. Full use would be made of the mass media for the promotion of physical fitness which is so fundamental for the well-being of the nation as a whole.

Technical Education

21.41 The Sixth Plan takes into account the extensive infra-structure of facilities that has been created for technical education at diploma, degree and postgraduate levels as well as for supporting services like teacher education and curriculum development. The emphasis during the Plan will be on (a) consolidation and optimum utilisation of these facilities, (b) identification of critical areas and creation of necessary facilities for education in emerging technologies in the light of proper assessment of future technological manpower requirements, (c) improvement of quality of technical education at all levels and (d) furtherance of national efforts to develop and apply science and technology as an instrument of the country's socio-economic progress.

21.42 Efforts towards consolidation would seek to ensure that the development schemes initiated in the earlier Plans would be completed in all their aspects and the facilities would be modernised in keeping with the state oT art in the technology area as incorporated in (he national economic sectors. These would help increase

21.43 In the light of studies already made, facilities would be developed for manpower training in areas like computer science, product development, maintenance engineering instrumentation, and bio-sciences. Centres, for advance studies and research would also be set up in selected institutions in emerging technologies like bio-conversion, laser technology, microprocessors development and application, fibre optics and optical communication remote sensing technology, energy systems, reliability engineering and atmospheric sciences.

21.44 The programmes of improvement of quality of teaching and of maintenance of standards would be ntinued and strengthened. Wherever possible engineering projects and contracts at the campuses of engineering colleges would be undertaken by the students and the faculties themselves and suitable stipends paid for this work which would supplement practical learning. The development of an institutional network: between well-established institutions/ departments and the developing ones, through an internal technical assistance programme, would be given necessary support. Structured linkages would be evolved for industry I institutional interaction. The facilities of technical institutions in the form of faculty, students and laboratories|workshops would be fully utilised to assist the spread of science anJ technology to the neighbourhood areas and, through effective and productive interaction, to evolve solutions of societal development problems of immediate and future relevance.


21.45 The Sixth Plan seeks to initiate serious efforts to recognise culture as a basic concept to be integrated with all activities of development and, particularly, the educational efforts, at all levels. They would aim at democratising culture and making it part of the programme of h'unan resource development. Proposals have been made in the Sixth Plan to incorporate cultural elements at all levels and into formal and non-formal systems of education, because such an integration of culture elements may be die best means of making education relevant and meaningful. It would also enable the educational system to draw upon the valuable sources available in the community for personality development -and help the pupils develop attitudes without getting alienated from their socio-cultural environment. The process would ultimately make culture a way of life for the people and identify their role in the promotion of our national value system.

21.46 Planning for the integration of culture ele-alents would, no doubt, take into account the cultural diversity and pluralism in the country and the need to promote a national outlook and integration. The linking of educational institutions at all levels with various specialised institutions and agencies which have come Jp in the area of cultural activities and the rich sources of heritage which have considerable educational value would be a very significaat aspect of educational development in the Sixth Plan. Besides, the schemes for the preservation of cultural heritage such as, monuments, manuscripts, oral traditions, folk arts, ancient form of arts and crafts etc. would be strengthened. The growth of arts, music, poetry, dance and drama would be supported as instruments of culture, education and national integration. The main objective would be to promote national pride and cultural identity and Tester greater understanding between and among the different groups and people of India.


21 47 The emphasis in the development of education to the Sixth Plan is on the optimum utilisation of existing facilities, qualitative improvement of system and making available the educational services to the socially deprived sections of the community. White financial outlays are important and necessary to create additional infrastructure, it is equally important to bring about changes and improvements in the system through increased attention to non-monetary inputs. These refer to an environment conducive to growth and development of education, participatory management techniques involving the teachers and the students alike, development of a relevant academic ethos, 6p-portunities for learning by doing and appropriate consideration to the problems of education of the first generation learners.

21.48 Many of the complex problems in the field of education would require, for their solution, a proper blend of professional skill and political will. Such an environment needs to be evolved at all levels through cooperation among all relevant agencies and organisations. This would also help the educational institutions to make progress according to their genius and potential. In respect of management practices, there is no gainsaying the fact that it holds the key to get the best return out of the available resources and investments. Good management leading to promoting harmony among the participants in the system, wafld produce more durable and sustained results wiich would exceed trie sum total of the individual inyuts. For this purpose, there should be an appropriate system of communication among faculty menbere themselves and between them and the students a. well as with parents and local community at ].arge. Development of these programmes is accorded high priority in keeping with the emphasis in the Sixth plan on enhancement of the productivity level in the economy. Teaching and learning as part of the educational process have become specialised in characte, and this needs to be articulated by the academic .xanmumty both in curricular and extra curricular Ktivities so that the general academic ethos could be dated, in a variety of ways to the different levels ofthe heterogeneous groups of students entering the system and makes a distinct impact on the value sytem of the faculty and s'Sudents.

21.49 A common reason for the inability -:o promote learning through work and service is the' absence of adequate facilities in educational institutions for practical training. Improvisations and innovative approaches are seldom promoted. The Sxth Plan envisages that practical training would be >rganised in real life situations, wherever possible inder the several development departments and proje


21.50 The Sixth Plan provides an outlay of Rs. 2524 crores for development of education and culture. Its distribution among the Centre and State Plans as well as .among the several sub-heads is shown in table 21.2. This is apart from provisions made separately for Hill Area Development Plan as well as under the relevant sectors of Agriculture, for education in agriculture and allied sciences, and Health for education in medicine and related fields.

Table 21.2 Sixth Plan Outlay for Education and Culture
(Rs. in crores)

Sl. Sub-Head
States and Union Territories Centre Total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
1 Early childhood and Elementary Education 851.07 54.30 905.37
2 Secondary Education 370.00 28.01 398.01
3 Teacher Education 22.00 * 22.00
4 University and Higher Education 197.00 288.75 485.75
5 Adult Education 68.00 60.00 128.00
6 Physical Education, Sports and Games and Youth Welfare 69.00 24.54 93.54
7 Other Programmi's 69.41 60.15 129.56
Sub-total General Educa-cation 1646:48 515.75 2162.23
8 AH and Culture 32.90 51.00 83.90
9 Technical Education .


109.61 168 00. 277.61
1788.99 734.75 2523.74

•Included under Sec andary Education.

Annexure 21.1 Subject: Enrolment in Classes I -V—1979-80



States/U.Ts. Enrolment (in 000's) Enrolment as % of age-group 6-11
Boys Girls total Boys Girls Total
(0) A. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1 Andhra Pradesh 3057 2125 5182 93.8 67.7 81.0
2 Assam* 1013 718 1731 90.0 67.1 78.8
3 Bihar 4632 1980 6612 104.2 47.4 76.7
4 Gujarat 2480 1658 4138 118.7 84.6 102.2
5 Haryana 783 381 1164 91.0 48.8 71.0
6 Himachal Pradesh 298 214 512 126.8 85.6 105.6
7 Jammu and Kashmir 333 185 518 93.3 51.7 72-4
8 Karnataka 2076 1612 3688 89.1 73.3 81.4
9 Kerala 1664 1564 3228 103.4 102.2 102.8
10 Madhya Pradesh 3234 1529 4763 84.9 43.2 64.8
11 Maharashtra 4687 3502 8189 124.4 97.5 111.4
12 Manipur 85 66 151 97.7 73.3 85.3
13 Meghalaya 99 96 195 120.7 115.7 118.2
14 Nagaland 55 46 101 137.5 117.9 127.8
15 Orissa 1622 1058 2680 96.5 66.9 82.2
16 Punjab 1157 963 2120 118.1 107.6 113.0
17 Rajasthan 2059 663 2722 88.0 30.4 60.2
18 Sikkim 24 16 40 150.0 100.0 125.0
19 Tamil Nadu 3428 2800 6228 121.1 103.3 112.2
20 Tripura 126 91 217 94.7 66.9 80.7
21 Uttar Pradesh 6372 2945 9317 91.0 45.1 68.9
22 West Bengal 3903 2496 6399 104.4 69.7 87.4
  TotaL (States) 43187 26708 69895 100.2 65.6 83.4
  Union Territories            
23 A and N Islands 14 12 26 140.0 120.0 130.0
24 Arunachal Pradesh 37 18 55 102.8 51.4 77.5
25 Chandigarh 23 17 40 95.8 73.9 85.1
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 10 6 16 166.6 100.0 133.3
27 Delhi 346 298 644 104.8 91.7 98.3
28 Goa, Daman and Diu 67 58 125 104.7 90.6 97.7
29 Lakshadweep . 4 3 7 154.6 128.6 141.9
30 Mizoram 34 31 65 90.0 89.9 90.0
  Pondicherry 41 35 76 120.6 100.0 110.1
  Total (U.Ts.) 576 478 1054 108.5 91.2 99.0
  Total (States and U.Ts.) 43763 27186 70949 100.2 65.9 83.6

* Classes I—IV

Annexure 21.2 Subject : Enrolment targets for 1984-85—Class I—V

(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A. States            
1 Andhra Pradesh 3463 2672 6-135 108.2 88.8 98.8
2 Assam 1288 993 2281 100.0 82.7 91.2
3 Bihar 5070 3174 8244 109.9 73.5 92.3
4 Gujarat 2497 2153 4850 114.3 105.3 109.9
5 Haryana 803 605 11408 93.4 74.7 84.3
6 Himachal Pradesh 325 240 565 141.3 92.3 115.3
7 Jammu and Kashmir . 463 300 763 125.1 80.2 102,6
8 Karnataka 2069 1716 3785 86.2 75.9 81.2
9 Kerala 1679 1579 3258 101.1 101.2 101.2
10 Madhya Pradesh 4016 1898 5914 102.2 52.1 78.1
11 Maharashtra 5200 3900 9100 142.1 113.4 128.-2
12 Manipur 108 109 217 108.0 107.9 103.3
13 Meghalaya 132 128 260 143.5 137.6 140.3
14 Nagaland . 61 53 114 132.6 U7.8 125.5
15 Orissa 2083 1310 3393 117.7 79.4 99.2
16 Punjab 1064 907 1971 109.7 100.2 105.1
17 Rajasthan 2349 1023 3372 94.3 43.2 69.4
18 Sikkim 30 26 56 166.7 144.4 155.5
19 Tamil Nadii 3528 3200 6728 130.7 126.0 128.4
20 Tripura 149 108 257 102.8 73.5 88.0
21 Uttar Pradesh 7092 4025 11117 97.0 58.4 7S.3
22 West Bengal 4313 3417 7730 107.6 91.1 99.6
  Total (States) 47782 33536 81318 1008.0 81.1 95.0
  Union Territories            
23 A and N Islands . 21 18 39 156.1 131.8 144.2
24 Arunachal Pradesh 49 24 73 122.5 61.5 92.4
25 Chandigarh 34 29 63 113.3 93.5 103-3
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 7 6 13 140.0 100.0 118.2
27 Delhi 387 410 797 107.5 107.9 107.7
28 Goa, Daman and Diu 85 70 155 130.8 107.7 119.2
29 Lakshadweep 4 3 7 200.0 150.0 175.0
30 Mizoram . 46 40 86 106.0 104.0 105. 0
31 Pondicherry 42 40 82 123.5 114.3 118.8
  Total (U.Ts.) 675 640 1315 117.4 107.4 112.3
  Total (States and U.Ts.) 48457 34176 82633 108.1 81.5 95.2

Annexure 21.3 Subject: Enrolment in Classes VI-VIII - 1979-80

Sl. No States/U.Ts. Enrolment (in 000's) Enrolment as % age of age group 11—14
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A. States            
1 Andhra Pradesh 537 275 812 27.8 14.8 21.4
f Assam* 368 240 608 48.6 32.7 43.7
3 Bihar 1019 321 1340 41.0 13.8 27.8
4 Gujarat 699 403 1102 57.9 35.4 45.9
5 Haryana 320 110 430 62.7 24.4 44.8
6 Himachal Pradesh 122 54 176 87.8 37.8 62.4
7 Jammu and Kashmir 113 54 167 57.0 27.4 42.2
8 Karnataka 731 441 1172 55.2 34.7 45.2
9 Kerala 839 752 1591 91.8 85.3 88.6
10 Madhya Pradesh 937 299 1236 45.0 15.5 30.8
11 Maharashtra 1316 727 2043 58.8 33.7 46.5
12 Manipur 21 12 33 44.7 23.1 33.3
13 Meghalaya 19 17 36 44.2 36.9 40.4
14 Nagaland 23 18 41 100.0 78.3 89.1
15 Orissa 371 172 543 39.0 18.9 29.2
16 Punjab 407 254 661 68.4 48.4 59.0
17 Rajasthan 579 135 714 44.5 11.4 28.7
18 Sikkim 4 2 6 44.4 22.2 33.3
19 Tamil Nadu 1100 667 1767 64.9 41.2 53.3
20 Tripura 32 32 64 45.1 39.0 41.8
21 Uttar Pradesh 2120 672 2792 53.3 18.7 36.8
22 West Bengal 1010 674 1684 49.4 33.8 41.7
  Total (States) 12687 6331 19018 51.5 27.2 39.7
  Union Territories            
23 A and N Islands 5 3 8 90.9 51.7 70.8
24 Arunachal Pradesh . 6 3 8 35.3 11.8 23.5
25 Chandigarh 11 8 19 73.3 61.5 67.8
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1.2 0.6 1.8 40.0 17.1 27.7
27 Delhi 175 128 303 93.7 67.4 79.1
28 Goa, Daman and Diu 38 29 67 97.4 70.7 83.7
29 Lakshadweep 1.5 0.9 2.4 125.0 75.0 100.0
30 Mizoram 13 11 24 76.4 61.1 68.5
31 Pondicherry 18 14 32 90.0 66.7 78.0
  Total (U.Ts.) 268 197 465 82.2 63.5 74.9
  Total (States and U.Ts.) 12955 6528 19483 52.0 27.7 40.2
* The break up between boys and girls estimated.

Annexure 21.4 Subject : Enrolment Targets for 1984—85—Classes VI—VIII

Sl.No. States /U.Ts. Enrolment (in 000's) Enrolment as percentage of age group 11—14
Boys Girls Total Boys Giris Total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A. States
1 Andhra Pradesh 790 470 1260 40.7 25.5 33.3
2 Assam 493 365 85S 58.7 43.9 51.3
i Bihar 1319 521 1840 4^.7 23.4 35.3
4 Gujarat 105C1 663 1713 83.3 54.3 69.1
5 Haryana 380 170 550 75.3 36.4 56.6
6 Himachal Pradesh 159 80 230 107.9 56.3 81.8
7 Jammii and Kashmir 150 99 2W 74.3 47.6 60.7
8 Karnataka 911 565 1476 64.6 42.5 53.9
9 Kerala 894 797 1691 89.4 85.7 87.6
10 Madhya Pradesh 1261 387 1648 54.8 18.1 37.1
11 Maharashtra 1600 880 2480 71.7 41.5 57.0
12 Manipur 40 43 83 72.7 72.9 72.8
13 Meghalaya 41 37 78 84.5 72.5 78.8
14 Nagaland 32 25 57 118.5 92.6 105.5
15 Orissa 507 271 778 50.2 28.5 39,7
16 Punjab 561 349 910 96.7 36.7 81.8
17 Rajasthan 804 235 1039 57.4 17.9 38.3
18 Sikkim 9 5 14 90.0 55.6 73.7
19 Tamil Nadu 1350 917 2267 79.4 57.7 68.9
20 Tripura 44 36 80 50.6 40.0 45.2
21 Uttar Pradesh 2540 1132 3672 60.9 28.8 45.3
22 West Bengal 1350 900 2250 58.3 41.1 49.9
Total (States) 16276 8947 25223 62.6 36.3 49.8
B. Union Territories
23 A and N Islands 8 6 14 109.9 100.0 105.6
24 Arunach-il Pradesh 9- 6 15 45.0 30.0 37.5
25 Chandigarh 17 15 32 94.4 83.3 88.8
26 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 2.5 1.5 4.0 83.3 50.0 66.6
27 Delhi 214 155 369 97.3 70.8 84.0
28 Goa, Daman and Diu 51 36 87 127.5 87.8 107.4
29 Lakshadweep 1.5 0.9 2.4 150.0 90.0 120.0
30 Mizoram 23 20 43 102.0 98.0 100.0
31 Pondicherry 23 23 46 109.5 104.5 118.6
Total (UTs) 349 263 612 100.5 75.1 87.8
Total (States and U.Ts.) 16625 9210 25835 63.1 36.8 50.3
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