4th Five Year Plan
[ Home ]
<< Back to Index

1 || 2 || 3 || 4 || 5 || 6 || 7 || 8 || 9 || 10 || 11 || 12 || 13 || 14 || 15 || 16 || 17 || 18 || 19 || 20 || 21 || 22 || 23

Chapter 8:

Animal Husbandary

The Third Plan and the subsequent Annual Plans attached considerable importance to animal husbandry. A new cattle breeding policy was evolved during this period. According to this policy, cross breeding would be undertaken in areas covered by Intensive Cattle Development (ICD) Projects and in key village blocks that lie in the milk sheds of existing and proposed dairies. Pure breeding would be confined to outstanding indigenous breeds in well-defined breeding tracts with a view to improving the quality of milch cattle. Simultaneous upgrading of indigenous cattle would be undertaken with recognised Indian breeds. Greater efforts would be made for the improvement of the productivity of buffaloes.

8.2. The introduction of ICD Projects during the period 1961—69 represents a significant development. The programmes include improved methods of breeding, provision of feed and fodder and disease control. Earlier, the cattle development programmes taken up in small and scattered areas, could not make much impact on account of insufficient inputs, lack of tie-up with proper marketing and inadequate coverage of cattle population. The ICD Pro--ject was conceived to rectify these shortcomings.

8.3. The Third Plan witnessed a notable breakthrough in poultry farming. The average egg production increased from 60 in 1960-61 to 80 in 1965-66. A large number of commercial poultry farms with 500 to 25,000 layers were set up in private sector in different parts of the country. Large private hatcheries were established as also poultry feed manufacturing units. As a result of these measures, egg production increased from about 2880 million in 19-61 to 5300 million in 1968-69. However the programme of poultry development continued to be adversely affected by shortage and high prices ot poultry feed. Another factor blocking the progress of poultry development was inadequate arrangements for marketing.

8.4. Compared to eggs and poultry progress in other livestock products fell short of expectation. Wool production increased from 32.55 million kgs. in 1961 to 37.60 million kgs. (estimated) in 1969. The productio'Q of milk increased from 20 million tonnes in 1966-67 to 21.2 million tonnes in 1968-69, representing a growth rate of about 3 per cent per annum. This was much below the rate of growth in demand for milk.

Objectives and Targets

8.5. The approach to livestock development in. the Fourth Plan is based on three major considerations. First, it is estimated that only about 12 pe< cent of the agricultural component of the Gross Domestic Product is accounted for by livestock production in India. The second consideration is nutritional. The following table indicates the present estimated availability of milk, meat, fish and eggs as against the level required by accepted nutritional standards:

Table 1 Availability and Requirements of Animals Proteins (in gms.)

sl. no. item level according to nutritional standards estimated availability
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1 milk 284 105.02
2 meat 28.4
3 fish 56.8 11.36
4 eggs 28.4

Compared with cereals, the demand for livestock products is more income elastic and it is likely to grow at a rate between 5.5 to 6.4 per cent per annum. The third major consideration; relates to the fact that animal husbandry offers considerable scope for the diversification of the economy of the small farmer and the landless labourer.

8.6. In the light of these considerations, the Fourth Plan aims at increasing the supply of protective foods like milk, milk products, meat and eggs and at improving the output of certain animal products of commercial importance, such as wool, hides, skins, hair, bristles and bones. It is also one of the principal endeavours of the Plan to help ensure that animal husbandry programmes strengthen the economy of sub-marginal farmers and agricultural labour.

8.7. In framing thp targets of livestock development, consideration has been given to the constraints that are still operating in this sector. The first major constraint concerns absence of a significant research break-through comparable to that in cereal crops. The second constraint concerns feed and fodder, while the third arises from the fact that a large percentage of the bovine population has to provide draught power for agriculture, thus leaving relatively limited scope for a milk-oriented cattle breeding policy. There is also lack of sufficient integration between crop husbandry and livestock production with the result that these programmes do not adequately reinforce each other. Again, there is the limitation arising from an intense competition for land and water resources. An extremely small area -is devoted to fodder cultivation and pasturage. Certain animals, particularly sheep, are reared by nomadic groups moving up and down the mountain ranges in the Himalayas or from arid to semi-arid tracts in the plains. In these circumstances, a continuous and consistent programme of extension and improvement of quality of animals becomes doubly difficult. In the light of these constraints, the following production targets of selected animal products have been fixed:

Table 2 Targets of Production of Animal Products

Sl. no. item unit 1965-66 1968-69 (estimated) 1973-74
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 milk mill. tonnes 20 21.2 25.86


wool mill. kgs. 35.66 37.60 41.50
3 eggs mill. nos. 4100 5300 8000

8.8. In the animal husbandry sector, the outlays included in the Fourth Plan are :—

Table 3 Outlay on Animal Husbandry

sl. no. outlay (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 70.91
2 union territories 5.40
3 central sector 12.50
4 centrally sponsored schemes 5.25
5 Total 94.06

The public sector outlays are proposed to be supplemented from various institutional sources. The Agricultural Refinance Corporation (ARC) has already finance several poultry and dairy development schemes. It is expected that, in the coming years, the role of ARC in this sector would be enlarged. Another significant source of finance particularly for purchase of milch animals is cooperative credit. The All-India Rural Credit Review Committee has recommended that such credit should also be available to persons who carry on animal husbandry activities without undertaking crop husbandry. These measures are expected to increase the flow of cooperative credit and, in particular make it accessible to small farmers and landless labour for their poultry and dairy activities.

Cattle Breeding Policy

8.9. The main features of recent policy are:

  1. Selective breeding in the breeding tracts of established or recognised milch, dual-purpose, or some important draught breeds of cattle.
  2. Laying more emphasis on milk production in the breeding tracts of draught breeds or types of cattle and replacing the other existing draught breeds or types with dual-purpose breeds.
  3. Grading up with recognised dual purpose or diary breeds in areas where cattle do not conform to any specific type of breed and are usually non-descript and of low productivity.
  4. Cross breeding with exotic breeds in hilly areas and other places where there are facilities for the rearing and maintaining of high-yielding milch cattle and in urban areas and around industrial townships to ensure adequate supply of milk.
  5. Improvement of buffaloes by selective breeding in breeding tracts and grading up with recognised breeds in other areas where buffaloes have established themselves.

8.10. The main emphasis of the new cattle breeding policy is on cross breeding. The rate of progress in this respect will, however, depend upon the degree of the farmers' acceptance of cross-bred humpless animals as working stock. While a measure of progress has already been achieved in cross breeding, certain technical problems in regard to exotic inheritance are yet to be finally resolved, so as to achieve a measure of stability in the desired characteristics. Recently a set of detailed guidelines have been suggested by the Government of India to the State Directorates of Animal Husbandry. These guidelines relate to the area of operation where cross-breeding could be attempted most profitably, selection of one breed with a view to ensuring continuity and economy in breeding operations and precautions about the maintenance of cross-bred stock. It has also been suggested that while introduction of 50 per cent of exotic blood has proved to be satisfactory, the introduction of 75 per cent of exotic blood has generally tended to reduce body weight, viability and milk yield. In regard to cross-breeding with Jersey bulls, it has been considered advisable to fix the exotic nheri-tance at 5/8 level and inter-breed from stock having this exotic blood. The most crucial point on wnich the success of the cross-breeding prograJtnme depends is the quality of the cross-bred bulls used for breeding. It will be necessary to ensure that there is no uncontrolled cross-breeding and that action is taken within the frame-work of these guidelines.

Cattle Development Programmes

8.11. In addition to 31 ICD projects in existence, 15 large ICD projects will be set up in milk bhed areas of dairy plants with a minimum capacity of 20,000 litres. There will be 20 medium type ICD projects in the milk shed areas of dairy plants with a capacity of 15,000 litres. The key village scheme now operates in 490 blocks. Sixty new key village blocks will cover small dairies.

8.12. The availability of proven bulls is a pre-con-dition for i.he improvement of breeds. A beginning has been made with two progeny testing units. In tile Fourth Plan, a Centrally sponsored scheme will provide for progeny testing units at 10 State {aims. For cattle development, schemes in the Third Plan and the Annual Plans included breeding farms, bull rearing farms, goshala, development, control of wild and stray cattle and organisation of mass castration. These pro-grammes will continue. Three central cattle breeding farms and eight bull reating farms will be set up. Sire evaluation cells will be established in each State.

Buffalo Development

8.13. The demand for the buffalo as a dairy animal lias increased in recent years on account of the high-yield and rich fat content of its milk. Of the eight well-defined breeds of buffalo, the Murrah breed, which is the most popular among the high-yielders, has adapted itself well all over the country. An important scheme, continued from the second Plan relates to the salvage of Murrah buffalo calves from milk colonies for distribution all over the country. In the Fourth Plan, an All-India Coordinated Research Project on buffaloes is envisaged. The objective is to improve the production potential of buffaloes through assessment of vital characters, selection for high economic value and development of breeds with the help of different systems of breeding-Research is in progress for overcoming the reproductive failures among buffalo cows during summer months. Some causes have already been identified. Further research work is contemplated in the Fourth Plan.

Sheep and Goat Development

8.14. The clip of Indian Sheep is generally of coarse quality and the bulk is classified as carpet wool. Wool and wool products such as carpets, blankets and druggets earn valuable foreign exchange. Considerable quantities of the indigenous wools are being utilised in the woollen manufacturing industries. There is also demand for raw wool in the export market. To improve the quality of wool from indigenous sheep, the development programme envisages cress-breeding of local sheep wuh exotic fine wool varieties as well as upgrading with some of the important local breeds. To produce quanity stud ranis of important indigenous breeds of sheep and exotic breeds, the programme envisages establishment of 8 large sheep breeding t'arms with a flock strength of 5000 or more sheep, expansion and reorganisation of 15 State sheep breeding farms, establishment of 5 new sheep breeding farms and 50 sheep and wool extension centres besides the expansion of 80 centres established during the Third Plan. Import of fine wool breed of sheep and of mutton types is envisaged to popularise improved method cf sheep shearing, wool grading and marketing on the basis of quality. The programme will be taken up in 8 States. It is proposed to organise farms for Pashmina, Angora and dairy goats.

Poultry Development

8.15. With the growth of poultry as a commercial enterprise during the last decade, poultry fanning has become lucrative. The Agricultural Refinance Corporation has already provided finance for five poultry projects. A favourable atmosphere has been created for the growth of ancillary industries such as organised poultry feed, poultry equipment, and sales organisations for eggs and dressed birds. Propagation of stock with high feed conversion efficiency is important for bringing down costs. It is proposed to take up a coordinated poultry breeding programme at three Central and ten State farms to evolve superior lines and to cross them in various combinations with a view to explotiflg hybrid vigour. One hundred intensive egg and poultry production-cum-marketing centres will augment supplies.

Piggery Development

8.16. Development of piggery is becoming increasingly important. Pig-breeders are being supplied improved pigs and technical know-how in piggery development blocks. In some areas, supply of balanced feed for pigs has also been taken up. With a view to improving the economic condition of those who have adopted pig-rearing as a traditional occupation, it is proposed to supply them breeding Stock it subsidised rates. The becon factory at Harin^;iatta will be provided additional facilities. Work would be completed in remaining three becon factories and one pork processing plant. Four more pork processing plants are proposed to be set up in different States. To ensure regular supply of improved pigs, 10 piggery farms would be expard-cd and 25 new piggery development blocks would be set up.

Feed and Fodder Development

8.17. Increase in the productivity of livestock has been hampered by the shortage of feed and fodder. Only about 4.5 per cent of the cultivated area is under fodder. This is not capable of supp; rting more than a small fraction of the livestock population. Stress will be laid on developing feed and fodder resources under the ICD projects and key village blocks. For meeting emergent requirements it is proposed to set up 5 fodder banks in suitable areas where the available grass production will be harvested and conserved. It is also proposed to popularise silage and hay making by organising demonstration on cultivators' holdings in the milk sheds of dairy projects. Seven regional forage demonstration stations will be set up. Foundation seeds will be multiplied at 20 seed farms.

Livestock Marketing

8.18. Marketing of livestock and livestock products has not developed to the same extent as that of other agricultural commodities. The marking activities have been confined to regulation of cattle markets and to some extent to the grading of live-sock products. Improvement in the conditions of marketing is an immediate need and regulation of markets would be an important Step in this context. It is proposed to establish a livestock marketing cell in the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection with the object of developing effective supervisory .and advisory control over the grading schemes for livestock products. In addition to this, other schemes proposed are classification of raw hides, improvement in the collection, preparation and grading of materials used for manufacture of animal casings -and management for grading of wool at producers' level.

8.19. With a view to creating conditions for hygienic production of meat, enabling proper ante-mortem and post-mortem examination, utilising valuable by-products and adopting humane methods-of slaughtering, a scheme for modernisation of slaughter houses was taken up during the Third Plan. It did not make much progress. It is proposed to set up corporate bodies to develop a few large, medium and small slaughter houses and meat markets. Bacon factories and poultry dressing plans will be set up for processing piggery products and dressed birds. To ersure fuller utilisation of fallen animal and slaughter house wastes for the production of stock feed, such as meat meal and bone meal, carcass utilisation centres will be established in most of tlie States.

Animal Health

3.20. Maximum production can be ensured only when animals are healthy and protected against diseases and parasites. It is proposed to set up 200 new hospitals, 1000 veterinery dispensaries and 2000 stockman centres and to provide 60 mobile dispensaries. Five hundred existing dispensaries wi I be converted into hospitals and 60 clinical and investigation laboratories established. In addition to the continuance of the rinderpest eradication campaign in the southern States and follow-up programme in others, the immunisation programme agiinst the disease will be intensified by establishing check-posts and creating an immune ?one to a de 3th of about 20 kilometers at ^nter-State borders. It is proposed to augment the production of tissue cu furs vaccines against rinderpest and foot and iw-'uth disease as cross bred animals are more sus-ccotible to these diseases than indigenous breeds. Tc prevent ingress of exotic diseases, an animal quarantine and certification service will be set up.


8.21. The two central research institutes namely, In;iian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) Izat-nagar, I J.I'., and the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan were transferred under the administrative control of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in 1967. The existing research facilities at both the institutes are proposed to be strengthened and a new Plant Arimal Virus Research Institute would be set up. At IVRI, new divisions of Epidemiology, Veterinary Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Surgery and Livestock Products Technology are proposed to be set up. The work of these divisions will comprise of investigations on the epidemiology . of various important diseases and their control measures, study of safety, efficacy, viability and applicability of newly developed medicines under con-trciied conditions and systematic research to evolve bCiter techniques of collection, processing, packaging and marketing of meat, meatmeal, bones, bone meal and animal casing.

8.22. 'Since consumption of animal products has been steadily rising, various types of microbial food poisoning are likely to present problems. The two nuin aspects of research proposed concern the diseases communicable from animal to man and • vie "-versa and the problem of rendering animal products .safe for human consumption. For the con-t'rl of foot and mouth disease, a vaccine has al-ra; dy been developed. Further research on this di;;;ase wjll be intensified for developing a potent va-cine for pigs. Under a coordinated project, typing of foot and mouth disease viruses would bs undertaken. A number of coordinated multi-disciplinary research projects are proposed to be taken up for producing better productive strains of different species of livestock through adoption of scientific methods of breeding, feeding, management and disease centre]. At the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute and at its two regional stations near Kulu and Kodaikanal, research will be undertaken on sheep breeding, management, health and wool processing technology.


8.23. While in the Second Plan stress had been laid on establishment of colonies of milch cattle in metropolitan cities on the Aarey pattern, the Third Plan policy was to develop dairy projects with emphasis on milk production in rural areas linked with plants for marketing surplus milk in urban centres. It was envisaged that the supply and collection of milk would be undertaken by producers' cooperatives in rural areas and the processing and distribution of milk and manufacture of miik products would be organised through plants operated as far as possible on cooperative lines. During the period 1961-69, 22 liquid milk plants and 4 milk product factories had been commissioned and brought in operation. Besides, 25 liquid milk supply schemes and 8 milk product plants were under various stages of installation.

8.24. On the eve of the Fourth Plan, the total number of dairy plants in operation was 91 comprising 47 liquid milk plants, 7 milk product factories and 37 pilot milk schemes. Of these, 53 plants are in the public sector, while the rest in the cooperative sector. It is observed that most of them are operating at a loss on account of various reasons. In some cases, there was undue time-lag between the initiation and the commissioning of the project due to unavoidable circumstances and this added to the capital cost. Many plants have taken a long time to develop the operations to their full installed capacity. While some efforts to introduce balancing plant have been made, the inherent problem of fluctuation in milk supply between the flush and the lean season continues.

Objectives and Outlays

8.25. As some of the existing dairy projects are operating at a loss, one of the principal tasks in the Fourth Plan is to review the work of the projects and to take corrective measures. This will include changes in the milk pricing policy and introduction of modern management practices. The desirability of changing the management of public sector projects, from departmental of corporate form will have to be pursued. It will also be necessary to establish a direct link between the small producers and the public sector milk plants through cooperative organisation. Dairy projects will need to be encouraged to take up extension work under their own auspices. At present, a number of dairy projects balance their operations by using imported milk powder. A phased programme is intended to be drawn up to increase production in the milk shed areas and gradually eliminate dependence on imported milk powder.

8.26. The organised sector of dairy industry will be extended to smaller towns with emphasis on milk production in tlie rural areas. Measures will be token to ensure that dairy projects are economically viable and, as far as possible, organised in the cooperative sector.

8.27. The financing of dairy development will be based on three principal sources, namely Plan outlays. institutional finance and counterpart funds generated by the sale of commodity gifts under the World Food Programme. As far as institutional sources are concerned, the Agricultural Refinance Corporation has already entered the field and financed one dairy project Further suitable schemes will have to be formulated for financing by ARC. As regards the commodity gifts from the World Food Programme, details are given later. Briefly, it is expected that funds of the order of nearly Rs. 95.40 crores will be generated and will form part of the Plan outlays. On this basis, the total outlay under the Plan will be of the order of Rs. 138.97 crores. The break-up will be as follows :

Table 4 Outlay on Dairying

sl. no. outlay (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 39.77
2 union territories 1.95
3 central schemes 97.25*
4 centrally sponsored schemes
5 Total 138.97

* Includes an outlay of Rupees 95.00 crores provided for Indian Dairy Corporation.

8.28. In the Fourth Plan, the first priority will be to complete the dairy schemes numbering 33 which spill over from the earlier period. In addition, organised dairy industry will be extended by taking up 24 new schemes in towns with a population of about 50,000. Further more, four milk product factories are proposed to be established. In addition, 64 rural dairy centres will be organised in areas with a population of less than 50,000 with a view to providing chilling and marketing facilities in isolated pockets of milk production.

8.29. The Government of India with the cooperation of the World Food Programme have formulated a project for stimulating milk marketing and dairy development. Under this project, the World Food Programme will supply free of cost during the next five years in a phased programme, 1.2 lakh tonnes of skimmed milk powder and 42,000 tonnes of butter oil at the international valuation of Rs. 41.90 crores which, when re-constituted into liquid milk by the four public sector dairies of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras, will generate funds worth about Rs. 95.40 crores. These generated funds will be used for investment in increased milk processing facilities, improved breeding, feeding and management of milch animals. As a result of these steps, the production of milk in the milk shed areas of these plants will be stepped up so that by the time the supply of imported milk powder is tapered off, the level of supply from the dairies will be sustained through increased local milk production.

8.30. The project will also set up additional storage and transport facilities for balancing seasonal and regional variations in milk production. It is envisaged that about one lakh high-yielding milch animals along with their calves would be salv iged from the metropolitan cities. The project will further help in the economic growth and stability of the rural milk producers in 10 Stales and in the Union Territory of Delhi, which constitute the four dairy zones of milk supply for the four major dairy plants. Similar programmes will be under taken in smaller towns and their milk shed areas with a revolving fund which will be created in the course of implementation of the project, Fcr its efficient management, the Government of India will set up a new company which will work in collaboration with the National Dairy Development Board.

Milk Producers' Cooperatives

§.31. Except for a small percentage maintained in the urban areas, the rest of the mjilch animals are kept in villages often by small producers owning two or three animals. The hope of accomplishing general improvement in the, production and marketing of milk would depend substantially or; the extent of effectiveness of the organisation of these scattered and small units of production. For this purpose, stress was laid in the Third Plan on the organisation of a network of producers' cooperatives. Their total number is at present over 8,000. In some States, these cooperatives have had a fair amount of success. In the Fourth Plan, further efforts would be Made towards strengthening and development of milk producers' cooperatives in two directions. First, the pattern of organisation of primary milk producers cooperatives would need modifica") tion. It is observed that the size of many of the existing societies is small, consequently the society is unable to undertake investment in special equipment for chilling. Apart from reorganisation of pri-ma;y societies as viable units, with a minimum collection of 500 litres of milk per day on an average, it will be necessary to work towards a progressive cooperativisation of Government milk plants, so that the entire chain of operations from milk collection to transport, pasteurisation and distribution gets integrated.


8.32. The National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal was transferred to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in October, 1967. The existing research facilities are proposed to be expanded with the addition of new divisions of dairy cattle genetics, physiology and nutrition and dairy economics. With the production of edible case in from skimmed milk through a simple process, not only has wasteful diversion of valuable milk protein been avoided, but the dairy industry has made a positive economic gain. Further investigations will be undertaken for the economic utilisation of whey (from the manufacture of cheese) for the production of yeast protein which can be used directly as cattle feed or, after processing, as human food. Coordinated multi-disciplinary research projects are also proposed with the object of increasing the productivity of dairy cattle and improving the economics of milk production.


8.33. In the Third Plan and in the succeeding Annual Plans, the main objectives of the fisheries programme were increase in production and development of export potential in fish and fish products. There has been perceptible progress in attaining these objectives. Fish production increased from 0.96 million tonnes in 1961 to about 14 million tonnes in 1968. The value of exports rose from about Rs. 4 crores (pre-devaluation) to about Rs. 18 crores in 1967-68. The pattern of export of fish and fish products has undergone a change during this period. The main development in exports related to frozen prawns in place of cured fish.

8.34. There has been considerable progress with mechanisation in the fishing industry. About 5700 mechanised boats were brought into operation during 1961-69. A beginning was made in the development of fishing harbours. A programme of 16 small harbours was initiated during the Third Plan and the provision of landing and berthing facilities for mechanised boats has since been taken up at 30 other sites. A beginning has also been made in the construction of major fishing harbours,

8.35. Fisheries Corporations have been set up in some States for deep sea fishing and export and for development of inland water areas. In addition, a Central Fisheries Corporation was set up in 1966 to promote regulated marketing of fish. In general, these Corporations have been facing initial difficult-ties in implementing their programmes. Considerable progress has been achieved in fisheries education and training. In 1961, the Central Institute of Fisheries Education was established at Bombay. Two Regional Institutes were established in 1968 at Agra ond Hyderabad for training operatives for inland fisheries. A Central Institute of Marine Fisheries Operatives was set up at Cochin in 1968 and has since been supplemented by a unit at Madras. In 1967, the Fisheries Research Institutes were transferred to the I.C.A.R.

Objectives and Targets

8.36. In the Fourth Plan, fisheries development has three main objectives, namely, increase in fish production 10 meet protein requirements, development of export potential and improvement in the economy of fishermen. It is contemplated that the demand for fish is likely to grow at a rate of over 6 per cent per annum. However, keeping in view various constraints the target for production in the final year of the Fourth Plan has been fixed at 1.97 million tonnes as against a base level of 1.50 million tonnes in 1968-69.

8.37. Until recently, the fisheries development programme was financed exclusively by direct Plan outlays. Towards the end of 1967. the Agricultural Refinance Corporation included fisher es in the scops of its activities and has since financed 5 schemes. The Industrial Development Bank of India has also agreed to give loans to operators of fishing fleets. In the Fourth Plan period suitable schemes are expected to be drawn up for making use of institutional finance in addition to the following outlays provided in the Plan itself :

Table 5 Outlay on Fisheries

sl. no. outlay (Rs. erores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 44.88
2 union territories 4.43
3 central sector 28.00
4 centrally sponsored schemes 6.00
5 Total 83.31

Development of Inland Fisheries

8.38. The country has extensive inland fishery resources. The available culturable water area, the area that can be rendered suitable for sweet water fish farming and the area which can be developed for brackish water fish farming are estimated at 1.62 million hectares, 0.65 million hectares and 2.02 million hectares respectively. So far, only about 0.61 million hectares of inland waters have been partially utilised. Development of inland fisheries is particularly significant for the rural economy of States such as West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. While some progress has been made in the development of inland fisheries, many problems still remain. Among the major problems are the inadequacy of seed supplies and technological difficulties in brackish water fanning.

8.39. The Fourth Plan programmes provide for production and supply of fish seed, reclamation of derelict water areas for fish farming and development of reservoir fisheries. The programme is to increase fish seed production by 500 million of additional fry and fingerlings for stocking of inland waters. An additional nursery area of about 900 hectares is proposed to be constructed as against an area of about 550 hectares available at the end of the Third Plan. It is also proposed to bring an area of 30,300 hectares under intensive pisciculture and develop reservoirs covering an area of 0.3 million hectares. Another important programme to be taken up is the stocking of an area of 6000 hectares of brackish water with suitable species. While inland fishery has ample potential, it also has certain limitations. In several areas it takes the form of part-time individual fish farming and has handicaps in the matter of modernisation. There are also difficulties in the introduction of modern management techniques on a long term, basis because, in several areas, fishing leases are limited to short period. In the light of all these considerations, it is envisaged that inland fish production in the country will increase in the Fourth Plan period by about 33,000 tonnes from a base level of 541,000.

Development of Marine Fisheries

8.40. The natural resources available for development of marine fisheries are large ard varied. The continental shelf has an area of 0.16 million hectares in the form of a narrow belt. Exploratory surveys indicate availability of 0.6 million tonnes of fish and prawns from the coastal belt up to 40 fathoms. The Indian Ocean with an area of 72.52 million sq. km. is the least exploited of oceans. In the Fourth Plan, there will be increased stress on marine fisheries, particularly deep sea fishing. At present, except for about 5 per cent. the entire marine fish production ccmes from the inshore belt. By the end of 1968-69. it is estimated that about 7800 mechanised boats will have been introduced. An addition of 5500 mechanised boats is contemplated. These will be partly financed by Plan outlays and partly by investment from the private sector.

Deep Sea Fishing

8.41. In the marine sector, offshore and deep sea fi and Jtiing trawlers, lack of infrastructure, insufficient past due to non-availability of requisite number of fishing trawlers, lack of infrastructure, insufficient facilities of storage and distribution and lack of in. formation on fishing grounds. Necessary credit facilities to private entrepreneurs were also not forthcoming. Efforts will be made to rectify these shortcomings. It is proposed to introduce 300 fishing trawlers to be operated by private companies, co-operatives and Slate fisheries corporations. To assist this programme, the Industrial Development Bark of India has agreed to provide deferred payment facilities for the indigenous trawlers. Assistance will be available from Plan funds by way of subsidy towards the cost of such trawlers so that these are able to complete with imported trawlers. Introduction of larger vessels is likely to be accelerated from the second or third year of the Plan when shore facilities will be available. Investigation connected with deep sea fishing with special reference to fishing methods, fishing craft and charting of fishing grounds will continue to be undertaken by the deep Sea Fishing Station. Indo-Norwegian Project, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology and the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. A survey is also proposed to be undertaken with UNDP assistance into the deep sea fishery resources.

8.42. It is proposed to provide landing and berthing facilities for larger vessels at several major and minor ports and for smaller boats at about 48 minor ports. At these ports, servicing and repair workshops, ice factories, cold storage and other ancillary facilities will be provided. The programme also includes arrangements for training skippers, engineers, master fishermen and other personnel.

Marketing, Processing and Storage

8.43. One of the more serious handicaps in the development of fisheries is the absence of a proper marketing system. In the Fourth Plan, measures will be taken to review the role of the Central and State Fisheries Corporations and where necessary, strengthen these organisations. Cooperative fisrermen's federations will be promoted and enabled to play a more important role than at present. The cooperatives and the public corporations will have to acquire a larger share of the fisheries trade before they can make a significant impact on the market. At present, only about 3 per cent of the total fish landings are handled by fishermen's cooperatives. While traditional fishing craft are landing marine fish all along the coast line, mechanised fishing boats operate from specified bases with landings concentrated at certain points. Where landings have been appreciable, there has been some difficulty in disposal cf the catch and the producer gets uneconomic returns. In view of this, it is proposed to develop appropriate arrangements for packaging presaervation and storage. It is intended to set up 10 composite plants and 73 ice factories and cold storages. Provision has been made for additional refrigerated rail vans for transport of fish.


8.44. The main strategy will be to organise co-ordinated multi-disciplinary research projects for effective utilisation of available resources, to tackle the various important problems facing the industry, to take up investigations generally on area basis and to lay more emphasis on small-scale pilot plants. The three central fisheries research institutes will continue to conduct industry-oriented applied research on different aspects of fisheries. The main programmes at the Central Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore will include the establishment of an Extension Wing, expansion and strengthening of the existing units and the creation of a unit for survey of the Brahmaputra river system for stepping up fish production by formulating proper management and conservation policies based on scientific data. At the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam, it is proposed to procure a research vessel for oceanographic survey, to strengthen different divisions with a view to Stepping up yields of the marine fisheries and to undertake five new schemes. These new schemes will entail estimation of prawn catch and fish landings, study of biological characteristics of important fisheries like mackerel, oil sardines, prawns and Bombay Duck. off-shore shrimp fishing and assessment of effect of fishing on prawn population.

8.45. The Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Emakulam has already conducted research on the technological problems of the fishing industry. However, in view of fast developments in this industry, it is proposed to strengthen the existing divi-sions» add a nutrition section in the processing wing and create an electronic section. Priority will be given to the evaluation of small-scale pilot plants for the manufacture of dried fish, fishmeal and canned and frozen fish.

Education and Training

8.46. The Central Institute of Fisheries Education established in 1961 with the United Nations Special Fund will continue to train fisheries administrators at postgraduate level. As the diploma has since been recognised by the Ministry of Education as equivalent to Masters' degree and additional facilities have been proposed to improve the level of education during the Plan period, the number of candidates is likely to increase. Since this is the only institute of higher education in fisheries, high priority will be given to its expansion programmes. During the Fourth Plan, urgent attention will be given to coordinate fisheries training at different levels as most of the States have already strengthened their training programmes.

8.47. The regional training institutes for inland fisheries operatives, set up at Agra and Hyderabad in 1968, are not working to their full capacity and may have to be reorganised. As the Central Institute of Fisheries Operatives has to meet the needs of the entire country for qualified marine operatives, it is proposed to undertake its expansion in regard to some of the subjects, with a view to meeting the demand of trained manpower of the categories like master fisherman, skipper, driver, gear technologist, shore mechanic, marine engineer, foreman and radio-telephone operator.


8.48. The Third Plan laid emphasis on measures which would help meet the long-term requirements of the country and ensure more economical and efficient utilisation of the forest products including inferior timber and wood residues. The object was to raise the productivity of forests, to increase the output through better techniques of timber extraction, to develop forest communications and to bring about increased use of preservation and seasoning processes. A vigorous programme of economic plantations for industrial and commercial uses was pursued during 1961—69. During this period, plantations of teak and other broad-leaved species and of conifers were raised on an area of about 394,000 hectares, while an area of about 246.000 hectares was planted with quick growing species under a new Centrally sponsored scheme to meet the requirements of pulp and paper industries. This has been a good start but so far only the fringe of the problem has been touched. An area of about 30,000 square kilometers in nine States was covered under a new scheme of pre-investment survey of forest resources with UNDP assistance. This survey has thrown up information relating to overall resources of forest species available in particular areas and the feasibility of their economic exploitation. To increase the output through better techniques of timber extraction, training was given in the use of basic logging tools and logging planning to 827 forest officers at four newly created training centres with the help of experts from the United Nations.

8.49. The Third Plan also laid stress on the development of village and extension forestry. It had been suggested that panchayat samities and pan-chayats should be encouraged to take up development of village and extension forestry on a large scale and forest departments should ensure that seeds and saplings were available in each area. However, the progress made in this regard was very inadequate. Against a target of 305,000 hectares, the coverage achieved was only 134,000 hectares during the "period 1961-69.

Objectives, Targets and Outlays

8.50. In the sector of forestry, there are three main objectives namely, to increase the productivity of forests, to link up forest development with various forest-based industries and to develop forests as a support to rural economy. As regards the first objective, it is necessary to stress that one of the problems of Indian forests is relatively low productivity. Forests occupy about 23 per rent of the land surface of the country and yet the contribution of 'forestry and logging in the net domestic product at current prices in 1967-68 was only 1.2 per cent. The average per hectare production per annum of forests in India is estimated at about 0.53 cubic metres as against the world average of 2 cubic metres. This is indicative of the size of the effort necessary in coming years.

8.51. The outlays for forestry programmes included in the Plan are indicated below :

Table 6 Outlay for Forestry Programmes

sl.no. outlay (Rs. crores
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 73.12
2 union territories 14.31
3 central 3.73
4 centrally sponsored 1.39
5 total 92.55

Main Schemes of Forest Department

8.52. Emphasis will be laid on measures to meet the immediate and long-term agricultural and industrial requirements, since the demand for various forest products, timber, domestic fuel and raw materials for industries has rapidly increased. Consumption of industrial wood in 1968-69 is estimated at 11 million cubic metres, while the demand by 1973-74 is projected at 16 to 17 million cubic metres. It should be possible to increase the supply by 1973-74 to about 13.5 million cubic metres. To increase forest production, the Fourth Plan envisages further efforts at creating large ?cale plantations of valuable quick-growing species and species of economic and industrial importance. Intensive exploitation and rational utilisation of existing projects. Steps will be taken to bridge the gap bet-forest resources will be aimed at. Concerted efforts at regenerating areas, where forest produce s removed for industrial uses will be taken. This is equally important for all forests where produce is to be utilised for new paper and other industrial projects. Steps will be taken to bridge the gap between demand and supply by fuller utilisation of forest resources, other than wood, such as bamboos and grasses, and by encouraging the use of non-conventional woods and small-sized timber. The object is to achieve self-sufficiency in forest products as earjy as possible, specially for major forest based industries such as pulp, paper, newsprint, wood panel products and matches so that the imports of some of these items may be replaced and some sizeable exports of paper and wood panel products built up. In some States, there are inaccessible forests which have not been economically exploited. Communications will be provided in selected areas. In addition, in areas which are already being exploited. improved methods of working, including reduction of wastage, will be introduced. The consolidation and scientific management of hitherto unorganised forests and protection against unregulated cutting, grazing and fire will be undertaken.

8.53. The basic principle of Government policy that minor forests, pastures and grazing grounds inust be managed mainly in the interest of the population of the tract and particularly to serve their requirements of fuel and fodder has long been recognised. However, efforts made in the past to achieve these aims have not proved successful. Unless adequate steps are taken early to protect trees and raise firewood plantations, a serious shortage of firewood is apprehended in rural areas, despite the availability of alternative fuel in some areas. Attempts have, therefore, to be made to formulate schemes for management of land resources lying between reserved forests and arable lands to protect them from further deterioration, and to develop-them as adjuncts to the rural economy, particularly for fodder and fuel. It will be necessary to plan for concerted action in this respect on the part of the forest, revenue, agriculture and animal husbandry departments in cooperation with village panchayats and zila parishads.

8.54. One of the new schemes will provide for coordinated research in forestry. This will be undertaken in close collaboration with the States under the overall guidance of the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun and the Forest Research Laboratory at Bangalore. New regional research centres will be established at Gauhati and Jabalpur. The schemes of research mainly relate to plantation programmes and ecological studies. Attention will be given to collection of more comprehensive statistics.

8.55. The scheme of pre-investment survey of forest resources will be extended to 75.000 sq. km. of forest areas. The project for training forest officers and the field staif of forest labourers' co-operative societies and of forest contractors in the use of basic logging tools and on the planning of logging operations will be continued.

Forest Labour Cooperatives

8.56. In the National Forest Policy Resolution, adopted by the Government of India in 1952, it was Stated that no forest policy, however well-intentioned and meticulously drawn up, has the slightest chance of success without the willing support and cooperation of the people in the neighbourhood of the forests. It was stressed that intermediaries who exploit both the forest and the local labour for their own benefit may be supplanted gradually by forest labour cooperatives which may be formed to suit local conditions. Appreciable progress has since been made in the organisation of such cooperatives particularly in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Their number now exceeds 1200 and they execute work for a value of over Rs. 4.50 crores. In some States, public agencies such as tribal development corporations have been set up with the object, among others, of promoting such cooperatives. It will be necessary to ensure that further efforts are made.

Conservation of Wild Life

8.57. The management of wild life in our national parks and sanctuaries could be greatly improved by special training in ecology and conservation. Special training programmes in wild life conservation, management and research have accordingly been instituted in the Forest Research Institute at Dchra Dun. These should help not only in improving the existing national parks and sanctuaries but in providing trained personnel for new parks and sanctuaries as need arises. The preservation of wild life is ultimately connected with the preservation of its habitat. Every attempt has therefore to be made to maintain the integrity of our national parks and sanctuaries and to create new ones for rare, valuable or threatened species.

8.58. The task of preserving our rich flora and fauna is one of growing urgency and complexity. Much has been done, for example, in pursuance of various resolutions of the Indian Board for Wild Life. A certain number of steps, legislative, administrative and technical, remain to be taken. With the establishment of a Wild Life Wing in the Union Department of Agriculture, it should be possible to pursue these steps and provide the necessary guidance regarding establishment of game sanctuaries, national parks and connected problems of nature conservation.

Annexure I Physical Programmes—Levels Achieved and Anticipated

sl. no. scheme levels achieved fourth plan programme level anticipated (1973-74)
1960-61 1965-66 1968-69 (4)
(0) (1) (2) (3) (5) (6)
1 I. C. D. projects 19 31 35 66
2 K. V. Blocks 407 498 490 60 550
3 cattle breeding farms 23 35 38 3 41
4 progeny testing units 2 2 10 12
5 fodder banks 1 4 4 5 9
6 sheep breeding farms 14 24 32 13 45
7 sheep and wool extension centres 305 461 503 50 553
8 sheep shearing, wool grading and marketing centres 2 6 5 11
9 intensive egg and poultry production-cum-marketing centres 77 92 100 192
10 poultry dressing plants 17 1 18
11 bacon factories 2 7 8 4 12

1. Provisional and are subject to adjustment in consultation with State Governments.
2. Although 21 new centres were set up during 1966-69, 50 centres have been merged with I.C.D. projects or closed down.
3. Dhulia Fodder Bank was closed down.

Annexure II Physical Programmes—Levels Achieved and Anticipated

levels achieved
sl. no. scheme 1960-61 1965-66 1968-69 i fourth plan programme1 level anticipated (1973-74)
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1 milk supply schemes 7 30 47 24 new

25 spillover

2 milk product factories 7 7 4 new 8 spillover 19
3 rural dairy centres . 64 64

1. Provisional and are subject to adjustment in consultation with State Governments.

Annexure III Physical Programmes—Levels Achieved and Anticipated

sl. no. item unit

levels achieved fourth plan programme1 level anticipated (1973-73)
1960-61 1965-66 1968-69 (estimated)
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1 boats mechanised numbers 2161 5206 7861 5500 13361
2 medium sized trawlers numbers 8 25 300 325
3 refrigerated rail vans numbers 6 6 9 20 29
4 nursery area hectares n.a. 550 800 700 1700
5 spawn million n.a. 3660 4500 3000 7500
6 fry and fingerlings million n.a. 300 450 500 950
7 area under brackish water fish farms hectares n.a. 8740 9500 6000 15500

1. Provisional and are subject to adjustment in consultation with State Governments.

Annexure IV Physical Programmes of Forest Development

sl. no. scheme unit base level (1968-69) fourth plan target
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
1 plantation of quick growing species thousand hectares 247 302
2 economic plantation for industrial and commercial uses thousand hectares 373 339
3 farm forestry-cum-fuel wood plantation thousand hectares 140 75
4 communications thousand kms 40 11
[ Home ]
^^ Top
<< Back to Index