3rd Five Year Plan
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Chapter 29:


Education is the most important single factor in achieving rapid economic development and technological progress and in creating a social order founded on the values of freedom, social justice and equal opportunity. Programmes of education lie at the base of the effort to forge the bonds of common citizenship, to harness the energies of the people, and to develop the natural and human resources of every part of the country. Developments of the past decade have created a momentum for economic growth; yet, there are large deficiencies in the sphere of education, which must be removed speedily if progress is to be sustained and enduring. It is one of the major aims of the Third Plan to expand and intensify the educational effort and to bring every home within its fold, so that from now on, in all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development.

2. In the field of general education, as distinguished from technical education, the main emphasis in the Third Plan will be on the provision of facilities for the education of all children in the age group 6—11, extension and improvement of the teaching of science at the secondary and university stages, development of vocational and technical education at all levels, expansion and improvement of facilities for the training of teachers for each stage of education, and increase in scholarships, freeships and other assistance. There will be special concentration on the education of girls, and the existing disparities in levels of development in education between boys and girls will be substantially reduced. All elementary schools will be oriented to the basic pattern. Reorganisation of university education along the lines of the three year degree course will be completed, and facilities for post-graduate studies and research work will be further expanded and improved. At all stages of education, the aim must be to develop both skill and knowledge and a creative outlook, a feeling of national unity which stands above region, cast and language, and an understanding of common interests and obligations.


3. Over the decade 1951-61, the number of students increased from 23.5 million to 43.5 million. The increase in the number of pupils in the age-group 6—11 was 79 per cent, in the age-group 11—14, 102 per cent, and in the age-grouo 14—17, 139 per cent. The proportion of children in these groups attending schools rose respectively from 43 to 61 per cent, 13 to 23 per cent and 5 to 12 per cent. In the course of the Third Plan, the total number of pupilsat school is expected to increase by 20.4 million, 15.3 million in the age-group 6—11, 3.5 million in the age-group 11—14 and 1.6 million in the age-group 14—-17. The Table below shows the progress during the first two Plans and the likely increase in the Third Plan :

Table 1 : Number of students at school (lakhs)

stage and age-group 1950-51 1955-56 1960-81 (likely achieve ment) 1965-66 (targets)
primary (6—11) enrolment 191-5 251-7 343-4 496-4
percentage of the age-group 42-6 52-9 61-1 76-4
middle (11—14) enrolment 31-2 42-9 62-9 97-5
percentage of the age-group . 12-7 16-5 22-8 28-6
secondary (14—17) enrolment 12-2 18-8 29-1 45-6
percentage of the age-group . 5-3 7-8 11-5 15-6
total (6—17) enrolment 234-9 313.4 435-4 639-5
percentage of the age-group 25-4 32-1 39-9 50-1

4. During the first two Plans, the number of schools increased by 73 per cent from 230,555 to 398,200, increase in the number of primary schools being 63 per cent, in middle schools 191 per cent, and in high schools 128 per cent. Progress in basic education at the elementary level is reflected in the increase in the proportion of junior basic schools and senior basic schools from 16 per cent to 29 per cent and from 3 per cent to 30 per cent respectively. Reorganisation of secondary education has mainly taken the form of conversion of high schools into higher sec'ondary schools, establishment of multipurpose schools providing for a variety of courses, and expansion of teaching facilities both for general science and science as an elective subject. The All-India Educational Survey, which was undertaken during 1957-59, revealed important gaps in the distribution of educational institutions. Thus, for the country as a whole in 1957, about 29 per cent of rural habitations and about 17 per cent of the rural population were not served by any school. In some States these proportions were very much higher. Progress in establishing new schools during the first two Plans was relatively greater in respect of middle and high schools than in the case of primary schools. With the provision of educational facilities for the entire population in the age-group 6—11, this trend will be corrected to a considerable extent in the course of the Third Plan. The Plan envisages increase in the number of primary schools by 73,000, of middle schools by 18,100 and of high schools by 5,200. The total number of schools in the country will go up by about 24 per cent to about 494,500. The following Table shows the progress realised in setting up new schools during the first two Plans and the programme for the Third Plan :

Table 2 : Number of schools

item 1950-51 1955-56 1960-61 (likely achievements) 1965-66 (targets)
primary schools (including junior basic) 209671 278135 342000 45000
junior basic schools 33379 42971 100000 153000
middle schools (including senior basic) 13596 21730 39600 57700
senior basic schools 351 4842 11940 16700
high and higher secondary schools 7288 10838 16603 21800
higher secondary schools 47 503 3121 6390
multipurpose schools   255 2115 2446
secondary schools with elective scien     4625 9579

5. The proportion of trained teachers has increased during the period 1951—61 from 59 to 65 per cent in primary schools, from 53 to 65 per cent in middle schools, and from 54 to 68 per cent in high schools. These figures suggest that progress in providing trained teachers has not been on an adequate scale. As a result of the more intensive programmes proposed for the Third Plan, the proportion of trained teachers in each category is expected to rise to about 75 per cent. Increase in the number of training institutions and in the number of trained teachers may be seen from the Table below :

Table 3 : Trained teachers and training institutions

item 1950-51 1955-56 1960-61 (likely achievements) 1965-66 (targets)
training institutions
training schools 782 930 1307 1424
training collegia. 53 107 236 312
teachers : primry schools
teachers 537918 691249 910000 1266000
trained teachers. 316124 423192 591500 949500
percentage of trained teachers 58-8 61-2 65-0 75-0
middle schools teachers 85496 148394 230000 360000
trained teachers 45569 86810 149500 270000
percentage of trained teachers 53-3 58-5 65-0 75-0
high/higher secondary schools—
teachers 126504 189794 229000 290000
trained teachers 68059 113307 155720 217500
percentage of trainei teachers 1 53-8 59-7 68-0 75-0

It is considered that the targets in respect of trained teachers at present formulated by States should be regarded as provisional and every effort made to improve upon them.

6. There has been a large increase in the number of students in universities and colleges, the total enrolment for arts, science and commerce courses being 360,000 in 1950-51, 634,000 in 1955-56 and about 900,000 in 1960-61. During the Second Plan, for the country as a whole, the proportion of students taking science courses increased from 33 per cent to about 36 per cent. In some States progress was specially marked, but there are others where there are still considerable lags. The Third Plan envisages that of the increase of 400,000 students at the university stage, about 60 per cent should be in respect of science classes, bringing the proportion of students taking science courses to over 42 per cent. Developments in university education in relation to arts, science and commerce during the first two Plans and the proposals for the Third Plan are summarised in the following Table :

Table 4 : Enrolment and institutions
(in thousand)

item 1950-51 1955-56 1960-61 (likely achievements) 1965-66 (targets)
university stage, age-group 17—23 :
enrolment 360 634 903 1300
percentage of age-group 0-9 1 -5 1-8 2-4
enrolment in science classes 140 210 323 553
enrolment in science classes as percentage of enrolment 38-1 33-0 35-8 42-5
institutions :
arts, science and commerce college (number) 542 772 1050 1400
universities (number') 27 32 46 58


7. The total outlay on education, including engineering and technological education, was Rs. 153 crores in the First Plan and Rs. 256 crores in the Second Plan. Programmes included in the Third Plan entail a total outlay of Rs. 560 crores. For programmes, other than those relating to engineering and technological education set out in the following Chapter, outlay during the First Plan was Rs. 133 crores, and during the Second Plan Rs. 208 crores, while programmes for the Third Plan involve a total expenditure of Rs. 418 crores including a provision of Rs. 10 crores for cultural programmes.

The Table below shows the distribution of outlay on schemes of general education under the First, Second and Third Plans :

Table 5 : Distribution of outlay

sub-head — amount (Rs. crores) percentage
First Plan Second Plan Third Plan First Plan Second Plan Third Plan
elementary education 85 87 209 63-9 41 -9 50-0
secondary education 20 48 88 15-1 23 .1 21 .1
university education 14 45 82 10-5 21-6 19-6
other programmes :
social education . 1   4 6   1-9 1-4
  14 10 12 10-5 4-8 2-9
physical education and youth welfare f others   10 11   4-8 2-6
total 133 204 408 100'0 70 -1 97-6
cultural programmes * 4 10   1.9 2-4
Grand Total 133 208 418 100.0 100.0 100-0

In addition to provisions under the head 'Education, resources to the extent of Rs. 37 crores are expected to be available under the community development programme and of about Rs. 42 crores under the programme for the welfare of backward classes thus bringing the total provision for general education in the Third Plan to Rs. 497 crores, as against Rs. 250 crores during the Second Plan.

8. Provisions in each Plan for education, as in other fields, are in addition to resources provided for 'maintaining' institutions established upto the end of the preceding Plan, as well as to contributions from non-government sources. It is estimated that over the Third Plan period 'maintenance' of educational institutions will involve a total expenditure of about Rs. 700 crores as against Rs. 375 crores in the Second Plan. The contribution from non-government sources is difficult to estimate precisely. Over the past decade this contribution has increased from about Rs. 50 crores to about Rs. 90 crores per year. In the course of the Third Plan, on account of the transfer of responsibility for elementary education to panchayats and panchayat samitis and greater effort on the part of corporations and municipalities this dontribution is likely to increase to about Rs. 120—130 crores per annum.

Pre-school Education

9. The need for expanding facilities for preschool education is being increasingly stressed. In the past progress in this direction has depended mainly on the work of voluntary organisations and the establishment of a number of balwadis. The number of children enrolled in pre-school classes rose from 28,000 in 1950-51 to 75,000 in 1955-56, and is now estimated at about 300,000. There are at present about 5,000 balwadis; of these about 2,500 are assisted by the Central and State Social Welfare Boards. The existing balwadis need to be improved and provided with trained child welfare workers (bal sevikas). The Third Plan provides for setting up of six training centres for bal sevikas. In the programme for education Rs. 3 crores have been allotted for child welfare and allied schemes at the Centre and about Rs. 1 crore in the States in addition to resources available under the community development and social welfare programmes. Schemes for child welfare now being formulated by the Ministry of Education include improvement of existing balwadis opening of new balwadis, expansion of the training programme for bal sevikas and a number of pilot projects for child welfare in which education, health and welfare services will be organised in an integrated manner. Schemes for children, specially the setting up of balwadis. will continue to be an important part of the programmes undertaken for women and children in community development blocks and in welfare extension projects.

Elementary Education

10. The Constitution envisaged the provision of free, universal and compulsory education for children upto the age of 14 years. In view of the magnitude of the task, it was agreed early in the Second Plan that as a first step facilities should be created for the education of all children in the age-group 6—11. This is one of the central aims of the Third Plan, to be followed by extension of education for the entire age-group 11_-14 during the Fourth and Fifth Plans. The principal problems in providing facilities for the entire age-group 6—11 in the course of the Third Plan period arise from the following factors :

  1. difficulties of bringing girls to school in sufficient numbers;
  2. extreme backwardness of certain areas and certain sections of the population in the matter of education ; and
  3. wastage' due to parents taking away children trom school as soon as they are able to add to the family income so that more than one-half of the children do not reach class IV, thus failing to gain permanent literacy.

11. A very large gap still exists between the proportion 01 boys and girls attending school. In 1960-61, about 80.5 per cent of the boys were in school as against about 40.4 per cent of the girls. Among States in which the proportion oi girls tails much below the average tor the country as a whole, are Rajasthan (15 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (20 per cent), Jammu and Kashmir (21 per cent), Madhya Pradesh (19 per cent), Bihar (27 per cent), Orissa (24 per cent) and Punjab (36 per cent). The National Council for Women's Education carefully considered the special measures needed for promoting the education of girls at the primary, middle and secondary stages and made a series of rec,om-mendations. These include the provision of quarters for women teachers, special allowances to women teachers working in rural areas, condensed educational courses for adult women so as to enlarge the supply of women teachers, stipends for women teacher trainees, attendance prizes and scholarships, appointment of school-mothers in co-educational institutions and provision of the necessary amenities. To some extent proposals on these lines have been embodied in the plans of States. It is suggested that the various provisions which have been made in these plans should be reviewed afresh at an early date and, from the second year of the Plan additional steps should be taken to expand specially those facilities which aim at enlarging the supply of women teachers and attracting them to service in the rural areas.

12. The problem of providing educational facilities in backward areas is in part one of ensuring that the institutions are so located that almost every child can go to a school within easy walking distance from his home. The findings of the Educational Survey, referred to earlier, will assist States in planning and locating of new schools from this aspect. Scattered habitations, such as hilly tracts, present certain obvious difficultes;in these, it will be necessary to provide additional facilities, even though these will be relatively more expensive.

13. Apart from the poverty of parents, the circumstances which lead to wastage are lack of properly qualified and trained teachers, defective curricula and insufficient appreciation of the value of education by parents. Closely allied to 'wastage' is 'stagnation' which occurs in the case of children who continue in the same class for more than a year. Introduction of compulsion, appointment of trained and qualified teachers, improvement in the methods ot teaching, greater understanding on the part of parents of the desirability of letting their children remain at school, and the planning of school holidays, so that they coincide with the harvesting and sowing seasons, are among the steps to be taken to reduce the incidence of 'stagnation' and wastage'.

14. The programme for extending education to all children in the age-group 6—11 is of such crucial importance that financial considerations as such should not be allowed to come in the way of its successful execution in any State. There may, however, be other limitations which may be more difficult to overcame in a short period; for instance, the measure in which some of the poorer or more backward sections of the population or the more backward areas respond to the drive for education, the time needed to persuade all parents to send their daughters to school, the extent of participation and eagerness on the part of the local community, the ability on the part of education authorities to obtain a sufficient number of teachers, both men and women, who will indentify themselves with the communities in which they work and, finally, the practical steps taken to provide reasonabe conditions and prospects to the vast body of teachers working in primary schools. Taking all these factors into account it is at present estimated that by the end of the Third Plan about 90 per cent of the boys and about 62 per cent of the girls will be at school, the overall percentage for the age-group 6—11 being 76. As the following table shows, in the course of the Third Plan, about 15.3 million additional children will come into schools, of whom 8.6 million are likely to be girls.

Table 6 : Pupils in age-group 6—11

year enrolment in classesi—V (lakhs) percentage of population in age group 6—11
  boys girls total boys girls total
1950-51 137-7 53-8 191-5 59-8 24-6 42-6
1955-56 175-3 76-4 251-7 70-3 32-4 52-9
1960-61 233-8 109-6 343-4 80-5 40-4 61-1
1965-66 301-2 195-2 496-4 90-4 61-6 76-4

Differences in levels of development between States will be narrowed to some extent, but they will still be quite considerable. This may be seen from the targets indicated by different States which arc set out in Annexure I to this Chapter.

15. Middle school education (11—14 years).— During the decade 1951—61, the number of children in the age-group 11—14 doubled, while the number of girls increased nearly threefold. Nevertheless, at the end of the period, as compared to 34 per cent of the boys only about 11 per cent of the girls were at school. The Third Plan envisages almost a doubling of the number of girls at school as against the total increase for the age-group of about 54 per cent. The disparity between boys and girls will, however, be still a marked feature, for, against 40 per cent of the boys at schools from this age^group the proportion of girls is likely to be less than 17 per cent. The table shows the enrolment of boys and girls in classes VI—VIII during the First, Second and' Third Plans.

Table 7 : Pupils in age-group 11—14

year enrolment in classes VI—VIII (lakhs) percentage of population in age-group 11—14
boys girls total boys girls total
1950-51 25-9 5-3 31 -2 20-7 4-5 12-7
1955-56 34-2 8-7 42-9 25-5 6.9 16-5
1960-61 48-2 14-7 62-9 34-3 10-8 22-8
1965-66 70-0 27-5 97-5 39-9 16-5 28-6

16. The main problems which arise in the expansion of facilities for children in the age-group 6—11 are found in a more accentuated form in the next age-group 11—14, specially in rural areas.

There are large differences in the extent of development in different States as may be seen in Annexure II to this Chapter. The difficulties of providing schooling facilities for backward areas and for scattered populations are even greater in the case of middle school education than in that of primary education.

In the more backward areas and among the more backward sections of the population, rapid development of middle school education can take place only after the necessary foundations at the primary level have been laid. Accordingly, in the Third Plan, for these areas, it will be necessary to concentrate on the expansion of primary education for these groups.

The question of providing facilities on a part-time basis for training in suitable vocations or by way of continuation classes is at present being studied. It should be possible to organise such courses to an increasing extent at middle schools, basic schools, junior technical schools and other centres. The possibility of organising vocational training on a full-time basis for children in the age-group 11—14 should also be examined.

For expanding facilities for the education of girls, the various recommendations of the National Council for Women's Education should be donsidered further on the lines suggested earlier for primary education.

17. For practical and administrative reasons, the programme of education for the age-group 6—14 visualised in the Constitution has been divided into two stages, 6—11 and 11—14. If the entire age-group 6—14 is considered together, it will be seen from the table below that over the past ten years the number of children at school has gone up from 22.3 million to 40.6 million, the proportion of the total population in the age-group rising from about 32 to 49 per cent. In the case of boys the proportion has risen from 46 to 65 per cent, and in the case of girls from 18 to 31 per cent.

Table 8 : Pupils in the age-group 6—14

year - enrolment in classes I—VIII (lakhs) percentage of population in age-group 6—14
boys girls total boys girls total
1950-51 163-6 59-1 222-7 45-9 17-5 32-1
1955-56 209-5 85-1 294-6 54-6 23-5 40-0
1960-61 282-0 124-3 406-3 65-4 30-6 48-5
1965-66 371-2 222-7 593-9 73-0 46-1 59-5

The Third Plan postulates an increase in the number of children in the age-group 6—14 about equal to that achieved during the preceding decade. For girls the proportion in the age-group should go up to about 46 per cent and for boys to about 73 per cent, the overall proportion increasing to nearly 60 per cent. These figures provide a measure of the task that remains to be carried out during the Fourth and Fifth Plans.

18. Reorganisation of school education along basic lines has been a key programme since the First Plan. During the Third Plan it is proposed to convert about 57,760 schools into basic schools, to orient the remaining schools to the basic pattern, to remodel all training institutions along basic lines, to establish basic schools in urban areas, and to link up basic education with the development activities of each local community.

19. Progress towards fully developed basic schools will inevitably be spread over a long-period, since the number of elementary schools involved is large and the majority of the existing teachers have yet to be trained in the techniques of basic education. By way of preparation for conversion into basic schools, a programme for orienting all existing schools to the basic pattern was initiated during the Second Plan. This aims at the adoption of a common syllabus in all basic and non-basic schools and the introduction of simple drafts and activities like social service, community living, and cultural and recreational programmes, which do not involve much expenditure or require teachers fully trained in basic education. With a vieu to completing the process of orientation during the earlier phase of the Third Plan, it is proposed that schools should be given simple equipment needed for the purpose and teachers who have not been trained in basic education should be given short orientation courses.

Trained Teachers For basic And Other Schools

20. Perhaps the most important measure 101" the expansion of basic education is the provision of larger facilities for the training of teachers for basic schools and the reorganisation of existing training centres along basic lines. At the end of the Second Plan, elementary school teachers were being trained in 1307 institutions, of which about 70 per cent were already organised on th." basic pattern. By the end of the Third Plan, the number of training institutions will increase to 1424 and all of them will impart training on basic lines, the number of pupil-teachers on rolls being about 200,000 as compared to 135,000 in 1960-61. For teachers who have not been trained in basic education, short-term courses of training in the simpler aspects of basic education are to be provided.

In most States the period of training for elementary school teachers is proposed to be extended to two years with a view to ensuring a greater measure of thoroughness both in regard to courses and methods. In a number of training schools extension departments will be established for improving the quality of teaching in schools in the neighbourhood. Towards the end of the Second Plan, 276 new training institutions were set up in preparation for the introduction of universal primary education during the Third Plan. The State schemes provide for equipment, buildings and other facilities for these and other institutions.

A factor limiting the expansion of basic education is that it has been largely confined to rural areas. A number of experimental basic schools are, therefore, proposed to be set up in urban areas, so that the problems of basic schools in urban areas can be clearly identified and solutions found for them in cooperation with training colleges.

Community Effort

21. Provisions made in the plans of States need to be supplemented by local community effort in programmes such as organisation of enrolment drives, persuading parents to send girls to schools, construction of school buildings, and provision of additional equipment and furniture to schools and of mid-day meals and free clothing for the poorer children. In several States encouraging results have been achieved in the mobilisation of local resources, and it is expected that local support will be forthcoming in even greater measure as Panchayati Raj institutions are established in different States.

Several States have provided in their plans for mid-day meals for children attending schools, notably, Madras, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore and Orissa. In Madras, which has the largest programme in this field, one million children are expected to benefit in addition to about a million already being served by the programme. About 40 per cent of the expenditure is being met by the local community. The movement for mid-day meals provides a special opportunity for each urban or rural community not only to participate in the educational effort, but also to improve nutrition and health in the schools and to assist the poorer students. Although the programme is at present soi/iewhat limited on account of financial considerations, it is suggested that State Governments should endeavour to provide for it, at any rate, wherever local communities come forward to take their due share in it.

Secondary Education

22. Development of the economy and the large increase in the number of secondary schools and in the number of students of the age-group 14—17 enrolled in them have altered the character of. the demands which secondary education is called upon to meet. New social groups are seeking education and are coming within its influence. Expansion has brought into secondary schools a larger range of abilities and aptitudes. Secondary schools have to be so reorganised that they provide diversified educational service to pupils according to their needs. In the middle and lower grades of many branches of economic life, in administration, rural development, commerce, industry and the professions, the requirements of trained manpower have to be met after the necessary training, by products of secondary schools.

The programme for the reorganisation and improvement of secondary education, which was taken up following the report of the Secondary Education'Commission, has proceeded along several lines and is designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to make it a self-contained unit within the educational process. The measures envisaged are the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of elective subjects along with and in addition to the academic course, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for vocational education, increased facilities for the education of girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships.

23. Reconstruction along these lines involves a major revision of the secondary school curriculum and the introduction of new techniques and procedures. Subjects such as general science and social studies and the variola elective courses are relatively new concepts in the secondary school curriculum and call for a new orientation on the part of the secondary school teacher. In turn, this has necessitated a countrywide programme of in-service teacher education organised by State Education Departments as well as special extension services.

Secondary school teachers have to be thoroughly prepared for handling the new subjects efficiently. The teacher education programme at the pre-service level has also to be reorganised in line with the changes that have taken place at the secondary level. The standard of science education has to be raised to a level which will effectively support the future scientific advance of the nation. Shortcomings which have been observed in the working of the multipurpose schools have to be remedied and the scheme placed on a stable footing. Educational and vocational guidance programmes have to be extended to reach as many schools and pupils as possible. Several other measures have also to be taken to strengthen the entire programme of the secondary school reorganisation, such as improvement in craft teaching, organisation of school libraries, the better use of audio-visual techniques, etc. Special emphasis is, therefore, to be given in the Third Plan to the consolidation and improvement of quality in all aspects of secondary education reorganisation.

24. Enrolment.—In the first two Plans the number of secondary schools increased from 7288 in 1950-51 to nearly 16,600 at the end of 1960-61, The number of children enrolled in classes IX to XI increased from about 1.2 million to 2.9 million. Although the number of girls in these classes increased from 200.000 to 520,000 during this period, girls constituted less than one-fifth of the total number attending secondary schools. As the following table shows, at the end of the Second Plan only about 4.2 per cent of girls availed of high school education as compared to about 18.4 per cent of boys of the age-group 14—17. There is thus serious disparity between enrolment in the two groups which, in turn, affects the number of women available for filling such positions as teachers, nurses, village level workers, social workers and others. In the Third Plan the number of girls in schools will be nearly doubled, but their proportion in the age-group as a whole will remain low, being about 7 per cent as compared to about 24 per cent in the case of boys.

Table 9 : Pupils in the age-group 14—17

year enrolment in classes TX—'XI (lakhs) percentage of population in age-group 14—17
boys girls total boys girls total
1950-51 10-2 2-0 12-2 8-7 1-8 5-3
1955-56 15-8 3-0 18-8 12-8 2-6 7-8
1960-61 23-9 5-2 29-1 18-4 4-2 11-5
1965-66 35-7 9.9 45-6 23-7 6-9 15-6

The Statewise position in regard to the enrolment at this stage is given in Annexure III to this Chapter.

25. Higher secondary schools.—One of the principal recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission was that high schools should be upgraded to higher secondary schools so as to make the curriculum more broad-based than in the past and to provide better standard of education by providing an additional year in school. This would make secondary education a terminal point for a large- proportion of students who have to enter life directly at the end of the secondary school. During the first two Plans 3121 higher secondary schools were established in different States. This number is expected to rise to 6390 by the end of the Third Plan.

26. Science education.—The Second Plan gave high priority to the expansion and improvement of science education at the secondary stage. The Secondary Education Commission had recommended that every secondary school pupil should study general science as a compulsory subject, so that he gains a basic quantum of scientific knowledge as part of his general education. In addition, provision was to be made for science as an elective subject for those students who wished to pursue higher studies. By the end of the Second Plan a programme of general or elementary science has been introduced in almost all secondary schools, while science of an elective standard has been provided in about 4625 schools. However, a considerable proportion of schools lacks the basic minimum requirements in respect or laboratories and equipment and also suitable text-books and handbooks. Teachers have to be prepared in the integrated approach which is required in the teaching of general science. It is also necessary to encourage students in creative and original activity in science. This was sought to be done during the Second Plan by establishing science dubs in selected secondary schools and training colleges. About 450 such science clubs were established during this period.

In the Third Plan, in addition to proving general science in all the secondary schools as a compulsory subject, more than 9,500 out of 21,800 secondary schools will also have science of an elective standard. The completion of this programme is expected to provide a more satisfactory foundation than at present for the further expansion of science education at the university stage during the Third and subsequent Plan periods. A number of supporting measures are also proposed to be taken to improve and strengthen the teaching of science. The existing science syllabi in force in different States will be reviewed and modified where necessary, with a view to integrating them with the science syllabi at the earlier and later stages of education. A programme of preparation of teachers' hand-books, students' manuals, science text-books and supplementary reading material in science will also be undertaken. The present shortage of science teachers will be made up to as large an extent as possible by increasing facilities of science education at the university stage and by providing various types of in-service training in content and methodology for the existing1 science teachers. The training of laboratory assistants in the techniques of handling laboratory apparatus v/ill also be taken up during this period. In addition, steps will be taken to standardise designs of science apparatus and to get them manufactured in the country itself. In order to coordinate, guide and diredt the entire programme of science teaching as well as the training of key personnel, a central organisation for science education is proposed to be set up in the Third Plan. A scheme of science talent search is to be introduced with a view to identifying promising talent at the secondary stage and providing opportunities for its development.

27. Multipurpose schools.—One of the main defects in the secondary education system was its unilateral character, only one type of academic course being provided for all students irrespective of their individual aptitudes and abilities. The Secondary Education Commission, therefore, recommended the setting up of multipurpose schools, which would offer a number of practical courses along with the academic stream, so as to present the pupil with a variety of courses, out of which he could make his choice according to his special interests. During the first two Plans 2115 multipurpose schools were established. These offer one or more practical courses in Technology, Agriculture, Commerce, Home Science and Fine Arts in addition to humanities and science. Although the concept of the multipurpose school has been readily accepted and the scheme has expanded rapidly, certain difficulties have been encountered, such as the lack of teachers trained to teach the practical subjects, insufficient teaching material, specially text-books and handbooks, limited range of elective courses and inadequacy of educational and vocational guidance facilities. During the Third Plan, therefore, it is proposed to concentrate on the consolidation of the scheme by strengthening the institutions already established, the programme of expansion being limited to about 331 new schools. An integrated teacher training programme for the multipurpose schools is to be undertaken, and for this purpose four regional training colleges will be established which will prepare teachers for the multipurpose schools through in-service and pre-service training programmes both in the practical and the scientific' subjects. Steps will also be taken to stimulate greater experimental work in multipurpose schools for providing courses of study suited to different levels of ability, including special programmes of education for gifted students.

28. Educational and vocational guidance.— The successful organisation of secondary education requires the provision of a well-planned programme of educational and vocational guidance which will help parents and pup Is in selecting the most suitable educational courses and most satisfying vocational pursuits. The lack of such an organised programme of guidance has been one of the handicaps in fhe working of the multipurpose schools in the past. During the Second Plan, in addition to setting up of a Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance, State Bureaux of Educational and Vocational Guidancee were established in 12 States. These bureaux have been carrying out a programme of training of career masters and counsellors, test construction and guidance services to schools. The guidance movement, however, has not yet made a significant impact on secondary schools. It is, therefore, proposed in the Third Plan to strengthen the State Bureaux in such a manner as to help them to carry the guidance programme farther into the field and also to ensure a minimum programme of career information service in as many secondary schools as possible,

29. Teaching of crafts.—The reorganised curriculum of secondary schools includes crafts as one of the core subjects. The problem of securing craft teachers in sufficient numbers and improving the teaching of crafts is one of great importance both for secondary education and for vocational education. A special study of the problem is, therefore, being undertaken by the Ministry of Education, and the findings of the study will be utilised to formulate a programme for draft and vocational education.

30. School libraries.—Another aspect of secondary education which needs particular attention is the organisation of school libraries. Steps were taken in the First and the Second Plans for the improvement of school libraries but much remains to be done in the way of ensuring better utilisation of library facilities and improving the reading habits of pupils. Use of library resources has to be an integral part of class teaching. During the Third Plan it is proposed to set up a few model school libraries in the demonstration schools attached to selected training colleges to serve both as models for the organisation and running of libraries as well as training centres for teacher librarians. A study is already under way of the existing organisation of the secondary school libraries and the directions in which improvement should be undertaken.

31. Post-basic schools.—In some States post-basic schools were started by way of con^nua-tion at the secondary stage of senior basic schools. There are at present about 66 such schools. The relationship between post-basic schools and higher secondary schools has been recently donsidered by a committee, and it is proposed that these schools should be assisted to improve their standards of curriculum, instruction, equipment, laboratory and staff, so as to place them at par with the higher secondary and multipurpose schools. Until these steps have been taken, the school final examination of the post-basic schools may be regarded as equivalent to certificates awarded to students of higher secondary schools for employment and other purposes.

32. Training of teachers.—The number of training colleges has risen from 53 in 1950-51 to 236 in 1960-61. In the Third Plan the number of training colleges is expected to increase to 312. The existing training colleges will also be strengthened and expanded to increase the supply of trained teachers. White these measures take carei of the numerical supply of trained graduate teachers, steps will also have to be taken to reorganise and strengthen the training college programme in order to align it with the current needs of the secondary school. Special emphasis in this matter will be given to pre-service training of teachers in science and social studies, introduction of new techniques of evaluation, provision of a varie^ of special, subjects, such as guidance and audio visual education and the organisation of research.

To provide in-service training facilities for secondary school teachers, extension centres were established during the Second Plan at 54 selected training colleges. These centres have been carrying out a comprehensive programme of in-service training, covering seminars, workshops and conferendes, audio-visual, library and guidance services and publications. Each centre provides extension service to a number of schools in the area allotted to it (the number varying from 100 schools to over 300 schools), and intensive training for a group of selected schools (about 20) in the immediate neighbourhood. The extension service programme has been found to be a valuable medium for continuous in-service training and as a means of keeping the training colleges and the secondary schools in close touc'h with each other. It is proposed to extend the scheme to a larger number of training colleges during Ihe Third Plan with the ultimate object of making extension service an integral part of the work of every training college.

University Education

33. With the expanding base at the elementary and secondary education, the demand for higher education has greatly increased over the past decade. The number of universities has increased from 27 in 1950-51 to 32 in 1955-56 and to 46 in 1960-61, and about a dozen more universities are likely to be added during the Third Plan. The number of colleges (exclusive of intermediate colleges) rose from 772 in 1955-56 to 1050 in 1960-61. During the Third Plan about 70 to 80 colleges will be added every year. The rapid expansion in the numbers of universities and colleges in recent years has led to a number of problems. These have been reviewed in the report of the University Grants Commission for 1959-60.

The Commission has stressed that if deterioration is to be avoided, increase in the number of students should be accompanied by corresponding expansion of physical and other teaching facilities. In the Third Plan larger facilities are being provided for diverting students to vocational and technological education. However, the problem is one of large dimensions and, even after taking into account these facilities. the number of those seeking adm'ssions to the courses of higher educa^on in arts, scienc'e and commerce will be large and suitable criteria for selection have to be adopted. In addition to the provision in the Plan for expansion of facilities for higher education, proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and the award of external degrees are at present under consideration.

34. Science education.—The programme for expanding facilities for science education during the Third Plan has been described earlier. This will involve larger provision of scientific equipment as well as appointment of more science teachers. It is proposed to prepare standard lists for scientific equipment for the guidance of educational authorities. Schemes will also be initiated for the manufacture and supply of such equipment at low cost. A large number of scholarships will be provided to the meritorious science students. A continuing review of standards of teaching and examination in science and technology, at all levels, will also be carried out and preparation and publication of standard text-books for use in the education programmes will be undertaken.

35. Post-graduate studies and research.— Post-graduate studies and research in science and humanities will be further expanded in the Third Plan. Assistance was made available to universities during the Second Plan for additional accommodation, laboratory equipment and library facilities. Measures taken by the University Grants Commiss;on during the Second Plan related to the development of new departments in universities in specialised fields of scientific study such as geophysics, astronomy, astrophysics, applied geology, oceanography, applied physics and animal genetics. In humanities, departments of Buddhistic and African studies and institutes or department were developed for studies in Hindi, linguistics and social sciences, and for archaeology, museo-logv, music, etc. The University Grants Commission also initiated a scheme during the Second Plan for awarding post-praduate and research scholarstr'ps and fellowships Programmes initiated during the Second Plan will be continued and further developed during the Third Plan. The University Grants Commission will assist universities and post-graduate departments of colleges in the development of post-graduate studies and research, special emphasis being placed on science education. The number of students expected to undertake postgraduate studies in science courses is expected to increase bv about 7000 for post-gradual studies and 1000 for research. In all- there will be an increase of about 70 per cent in the enrolment of science students at the post-degree level. The number of additional arts students will be 7000 and 2000 respectively

36. Women's education.—Shortages of educated women available for taking up various occ'upat''ons point to the need for increasing the proportion of women students in colleges and universities. The proportion of women students 'to the total enrolment in Indian universities was about 13 ner cent in 1955-56 and about 17 per cent in 1960-61, and is expected to be about 21 ner cent in 1965-66. Apart from orovidmg facilities for the increasing numbers of women students, during the Second Plan. courses of special interest to women were in-'tiat"d. such as Home Science. Music. Drawing. Painting, Nursing, etc. These facilities will have to be 40—170 Plan, Com./ND/9l further expanded. During the Second Plan, the University Grants Commission provided liberal assistance for women's colleges and women's hostels. This will be continued in the Third Plan. Further, in order to encourage women students, special scholarships will continue to be provided. A proposal for setting up an institute for training women in organisation, administration and management is at present under examination.

37. Rural institutes.—Eleven Rural Institutes were established in the Second Plan with the object of providing higher education after the secondary stage to the rural students in their own setting for developing rural leadership, and for stimulating active participation of the rural population in welfare and community development programmes. The Institutes were intended to train rural youth for specialised jobs in fields like rural development, cooperation, social welfare, social education and small-scale industries. Diploma courses in rural services, rural civil engineering, agriculture and health services were offered in the rural institutes. The enrolment of the Institutes by the end of the Second Plan was over 2300 and the annual output in various courses was over 500.

This scheme is still in an experimental stage and will be continued in the Third Plan, so that flie Institutes can develop their activities fully. The working of a few rural institutes was assessed by special committees and measures for im-' provement have been taken in the light of their recommendations. In the Third Plan, it will be necessary to examine the full potentialities of these Institutes and their contribution towards meeting the manpower requirements for rural development so as to equip them fully to the development needs of rural communities.

38. Three-year degree course.—With a view to bringing about qualitative improvement in higher education, in most of the universities, the three-year degree course in arts, science and commerce following the higher secondary school examination or a year's course at the pre-university stage after the present matriculation or equivalent examination, has been already introduced. The three-year degree course also includes other reforms such as improvement in the teacher-pupil ratio, introduction of tutorial system, general education, improvement of libraries, laboratories and instructional buildings. Periodical conferences, seminars, summer schools and refresher courses will continue to be organised as in the Second Plan for teachers in d''Serent subjects. Teachers will also obtain special grants for visiting centres of research for short periods. Among add'tional amenities for students are the provision of hostels, hobby workshops, non-resident students' centres, health centres, counselling and student aid funds. These will continue in the Third Plan,

Girls' Education

39. Some aspects of the problem of girls' education at different stages have been touched upon earlier in the discussion of elementary, sec'ondary and university education. There are a few broader aspects of the subject which need further consideration. Over the past decade, while the additional number of boys enrolled in schools was 13.2 million, in the case of girls the additional enrolment was only 6.8 million. The census of 1961 has shown that, as against a literacy rate of 34 per cent for men, only about 13 per cent of the women are literate. Consequently, by far the most important objective in the field of education during the Third Plan must be to expand facilities for the education of girls at various stages. According to the programmes which have been formulated, taking age-group 6—14, the proportion of girls at school should increase to 46 per cent, compared to 73 per cent for boys. Out of about 20.4 million additional children to be enrolled in schools during the Third Plan in the various age-groups, about 10.3 million are expected to be girls, their proportion in the lowest age-group being 56 per cent. At the end of the Third Plan, the disparity between boys and girls, although somewhat reduced, will still be considerable. Even to achieve the estimates mentioned above, a massive effort will be needed throughout the country and, more especially, in those States where the education of girls has seriously lagged behind.

40. It is estimated that of the resources available under the Plan for the development of education about Rs. 175 crores will be devoted to the education of girls, of which about Rs. 114 crores are for education at the primary and middle sc'hool stages. As stated earlier. some provision has also been made for special schemes intended to support the general programme for girls' education. It is suggested that in implementing the various, provisions made for girls' education in their plans, States should keep in view detailed recommendations contained in the Report of the National Committee on Women's Education. As has been pointed out, special emphasis must be laid on creating suitable conditions for encouraging parents to send their daughters to schools, educating public opinion, increasing the number of women from rural areas who will take up the vocation of teaching and inducing women from urba'n areas to acc'ept posts of teachers in rural schools. It is proposed to evaluate carefully from year to year the progress made in implementing the programme for girls' education and to take such further measures as may be needed for realising the targets set for the Third Plan. In the field of girls' education, it is specially necessary to study closely such successful methods as may be evolved in different parts of the country and to make such experience available generally. In drawing up annual plans also, care should be taken to see that the programme for girls' education is not held back for lack of financial resources and that the social and organisational limitations which impede progress at present are eliminated as early as possible.


41. Expenditure on scholarship programmes rose from about Rs. 3.5 crores in 1950-51 to over Rs. 8 crores in 1955-56 and to about Rs. 11 crores in 1957-58. It is expected to increase to about Rs. 18 crores by 1960-61. The number of scholarship-holders rose from 3.6 lakhs in 1950-51 to 8.8 lakhs in 1956-57. Of the latter about 7.8 lakhs were in schools and about 1 lakh in colleges and universities. In addition to this, by 1956-57 free studentships and other financial concessions were available to about 50 lakhs of students—1.5 lakhs in colleges and universities and 48.5 lakhs in schools. The proportion of students in colleges and universities receiving scholarships and stipends was 9 per cent in 1950-51, and is at present estimated to be about 16 per cent. These scholarships will be continued in the Third Plan.

An important scheme for scholarships is that relating to post-matriculation scholarships for scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and other backward classes which was taken up several years ago and now benefits over 50,000 students at an annual cost of Rs. 2.7 crores. At the pre-matriculation stage, 4 to 5 million children belonging to these groups received scholarships and other concessions in 1960-61, and the expenditure incurred under this head during the Second Plan was Rs. 12 crores.

42. In the Third Plan, provisions for new scholarships in different fields are as follows :

education programme pre-university stage 4-9
university stage 6-0
programme for the welfare of backward classes pre-university stage 11-0
university stage 6-0
technical and vocational education engineering and technology 8-0
craftsmen 2-0
total 37-0

Besides the provisions mentioned above, there are research scholarships and fellowships provided by the University Grants Commission and scholarships schemes in fields such as agriculture, health, scientific research, etc.

43. State plans provide for extension of the existing schemes for scholarships. Among schemes undertaken by the Ministry of Education reference may be made to national scholaral agencies. Under the programme for the welfare of backward classes, it is expected that the number of scholarship-holders in the school stage will increase to about 7 million. In the field of technical education, it is expected that as against about 6000 students now receiving scholarships or other assistance, the number will rise to about 32,000 or 18 per cent of the total enrolment.

44. In view of the importance attached to scholarships in the Third Plan, it is suggested that State Governments and the Central Ministries concerned should review their existing schemes with the object of ensuring that, subject to continued good performance, the rules under which scholarships are given do in fact enable promising students in need of assistance to complete their education and that ordinarily help is not discontinued at intermediate stages. For such students there should be adequate provision not only at the post-matriculation stage, but also in the secondary classes. In the case of students drawn from the economically backward sections, the aim should be to ensure adequate provisions for the numbers forthcoming and also for assisting an increasing proportion to reach the higher stages in education. It has been observed that because a sufficient number of qualified candidates are not forthcoming, administrative regulations regarding reservation of posts for this section of the population are not always fully implemented. Finally, there are some categories of personnel required in large numbers tor which, in the ordinary course, there would be inadequate supply of candidates, for instance, science teachers, women teachers, nurses, etc. Such categories should be carefully identified in each State and an attempt made to select promising students at the post-matriculation stage and assist them with scholarships and stipends through the entire period of training. They should be given the prospect of assured employment and should, in return, be under obligation to serve for prescribed periods.

Teachers' Salary Scales And Conditions of Service

45. The problem of raising the salary scales of teachers received special attention towards the end of the First Plan. During the Second Plan considerable progress was made and expenditure of about Rs. 30 crores is estimated to have been incurred on increasing the salaries of school teachers. As a result, the basic salaries of elementary teachers and, to some extent, of secondary teachers, were improved in almost all the States. In addition, expenditure was incurred on raising the salary scales of university teachers. In the Third Plan provision has been made by some of the States for improving the salaries and allowances of teachers.

Attempts will continue to be made during the Third Plan to improve the social and economic status of teachers. The institution in 1958 of national awards for outstanding work in the field of teaching is a useful innovation. The number of these awards is to be increased in the Third Plan. The Plan also provides for merit scholarships for the children of elementary and secondary school teachers.

Educational Research And Training of Key Personnel

46. Any system of education requires for its growth a vigorous programme of research in educational objectives, methods and techniques. It is especially important in India today where the whole system is being modified to suit the changing needs of a rapidly developing society. During the first two Plans, a number of research institutions were set up. The National Institute of Basic Education has conducted a series of investigations into various problems connected with basic education and has organised short-term training courses and seminars for key personnel in the States and published a number of valuable studies on various problems. The National' Fundamental Education Centre has studied problems of social education and trained a number of batches of District Social Education Organisers. The National Institute of Audiovisual Education carries out research in various media of mass communication—both ancient and modem—and has organised a number of seminars for key personnel working in this field. The Central Bureau of Educational and Vocational Guidance has built up a number of objective tests for conducting examinations in different subjects and for assessing the special abilities and aptitudes of students with a view to guiding them in then- choice of courses and c'areers. The Bureau organises seminars and short-term courses for guidance personnel in the States. In addition to the development of vocational and educational guidance, these measures will facilitate the introduction of mental health services in schools and colleges, including counselling for personal and emotional problems of students. The Ministry of Education has assisted in the setting up of similar units also in the States. The Central Bureau of Text-book Research studies text-books adopted in various States from the point of view of their content as well as the procedures followed in their selection. Criteria for evaluating textbooks have also been worked out, and workshops for training writers in the preparation of text-books are also arranged.

47. Training colleges were assisted during the Second Plan in carrying out investigations into problems of secondary education. The Directorate of Extension Programmes for Secondary Education has studied various problems pertaining to secondary education such as examination reform, syllabi for new subjects for reorganised secondary schools, problems of science'education, diversification of courses and others.

48. During the Third Plan research activities described above will be continued and expanded. With a view to developing at the national level a centre of training and research, it is proposed to establish National Institute of Educational Research and Training in which will be merged me existing Central Institute of Education and other Central Institutes and agencies referred to above. It is proposed that the National Institute of Educational Research and Training should be an autonomous organisation and that its functions should cover different areas of educational research, including elementary, secondary, social and audio-visual education, as also the training of key personnel in these and other fields. The programme of extension services through the training institutions will be coordinated and guided by the National Institute.

Extension departments will be started in 120 elementary teacher training institutions, which will take up research in selected areas and provide in-service training for elementary school teachers.


49. The problem of text-books has been assuming greater urgency in rectent years. The main aspects to be considered in a text-book are its content, method of presentation, printing, get-up and price. The procedure for selection of text-books is another important question. To over-come difficulties experienced in respect of text-books. State Governments have started, on an experimental basis, 'nationalisation' of textbooks. The experiment is too brief to warrant definite conclusions being drawn from it. Steps will have to be taken to select, train and encourage writers and illustrators, to increase the supply of paper and to provide suitable printing machinery. The Centre and the States will need to coordinate their efforts in large scale p^oducL tion of text-books with a view to reducing costs as well as keeping certain national objectives uniformly in view. To bring down the price of foreign books, on which inevitably considerable reliance has to be placed at the university . stage, arrangements for getting them printed in India are under examination. The interest of Indian writers must, of course, be fully safeguarded. The problem of translation of standard text-books into various languages and the writing of original books in these languages have become important in view of their greater use in the universities.

Examination Reform

50. The existing examination system has become inadequate for the needs of secondary education which has expanded in the scope and variety of its objectives. It has dome in for considerable criticism in recent years. The Secondary Education Commission laid special emphasis on the need for improvement of the examination system. A programme of examination reform was, therefore, taken up towards the end of the Second Plan when an Evaluation Unit was set up in the Directorate of Extension Programmes for Secondary Education. The programme envisages the reform of examination techniques in gradual stages and is designed for the following purposes :

  1. identifying and defining the specific educational objectives underlying the study of various school subjects ;
  2. aligning the techniques' of external examinations to these objectives, so that the examination questions and other tests may measure the attainments with reference to them;
  3. making corresponding changes in internal examinations ;
  4. giving increasing weightage to internal assessment; and
  5. introducing improvements in teaching techniques and curricula in the light of the educational objectives indicated for each subject.

The programme so far accomplished has helped to introduce a large body of teachers to the new concepts and techniques through seminars and workshops and to make training colleges, secondary school boards and others familiar with the problems of the examination reform. Considerable preparatory work has also been in progress. Work along the lines mentioned above will be intensified during the Third Plan. It is also proposed to set up State evaluation units which will work in coordination with the Central unit in implementing the programme. The University Grants Commission has assisted the establishment of examination research units in three universities. Further research work will also be organised and evaluation personnel trained in larger numbers. Research and evaluation units will be set up in some of the universities.

51. Development of Hindi and Sanskrit.— For the development of Hindi, during the first two Plans schemes were initiated for the evolution of Hindi terminology, production of dictionaries and original literature, translation of books of university level into Hindi and regional languages, and publication of popular books in Hindi through private publishers. Financial assistance was given to voluntary institutions engaged in the propagation of Hindi. Books' were distributed as 'free gifts' to school libraries and other educational institutions in the non-Hindi speaking areas. Grants were given to certain States for the expansion of facilities for the training of Hindi teachers and for setting up Hindi teachers' training colleges. Funds were also provided for the appointment of Hindi teachers in secondary schools in non-Hindi speaking States as well as for revising their pay scales. The programmes and schemes started during the First and Second Plans will be continued and expanded in the Third Five Year Plan.

52. In order to consider the question of the state of Sanskrit education in the country in all its aspects and recommend measures for its development, the Ministry of Education appointed the Sanskrit Commission, which made its recommendations in 1957. Implementation of these recommendations commenced during the Second Plan. The Central Sanskrit Board was set up in 1959 with a view to advising the Government of India on matters relating to propagation and development of Sanskrit and some steps have been taken in consultation with it. Programmes for the Third Plan will include production of literature, research scholarships, development of Gurukulas, modernising Sanskrit pathashalas, preparation of dictionaries and establishment of Central Sanskrit Institute for training teachers. Some States have also provided for programmes along these lines.

53. Education of the handicapped.—During the Second Plan several schemes for the education and training of the handicapped were initiated. These will' be continued in the Third Plan. The National Centre for the Blind will be strengthtned and a national Braille library started. A training c'entre for the adult deaf and a school for the mentally deficient children will also be established. The scheme of scholarships under which assistance is given for higher education and also for technical and professional education to the handicapped students will be further expanded. Emphasis will be la;d on the development of services for the handicapped through voluntary agencies and on the provision of special employment exchanges for the physically handicapped.

Physical Education, Sports And Youth Welfare Activities

54. Among the significant developments in this field during the Second Plan reference may be made to the establishment of the National College of Physical Education at Gwalior (which was the first degree college of its kind in the country), the setting up of Bal Bhavans to cater to the recreational needs of children, the launching of a national physical efficiency drive on the basis of carefully graded physical tests and the organisation of youth groups in rural areas as part of the community development programme. Towards the end of the Second Plan the National Institute of Sports was set up for training high grade coaches in different games and sports. In the sphere of youth activities, grants were given for the construction of stadiam, swimming pools, open-air theatres, etc. Steps were also taken for the promotion of the activities of the National Cadet Corps, Auxiliary Cadet Corps, Bharat Scouts and Guides and the National Discipline Scheme.

During the Third Plan period all these programmes will be continued. The National Institute of Sports will be developed so as to provide for all the major games. With the help of coaches trained at the Institute, a national coaching scheme providing for widespread coaching facilities will be introduced so that the standard of sports can be steadily raised. The national physical efficiency drive will be further intensified so that it has greater impact. A National Children's Museum is also proposed to be established as a complement to the Bal Bhavan.

Social Education And Adult Literacy

55. As was stated in the First Plan, social education implies 'an all-domprehensive programme of community uplift through community action'. Social education, thus, comprises literacy, health, recreation and home life of adults, training in citizenship and guidance in improving economic efficiency. In the last analysis, in the setting of democracy, the succtess of planned development, which encompasses the needs of millions of people, depends on the spread of social education and a progressive outlook and the growth of a sense of shared citizenship. Yet, the educational aims of agriculture, community development, health and other welfare programmes are among the most difficult to realise. Over the past decade, in several directions there has been a measure of progress, as in the development of community centres, reading rooms in villages, organisation of youth groups and mahila mandals, and the revitalisa-tion of village panchayats and the cooperative movement. One aspect of social education, and in some ways the most important, has, however, caused concern. Between 1951 and 1961, literacy has increased only from about 17 to about 24 per cent. The introduction of Panchayati Raj at the district and block levels and the important role assigned to village panchayats render it imperative that in as short a period as possible a substantial proportion of the adult population should become capable of reading and writing. This is essential in their own interest as in that of the community as a whole. As sufficient progress has not been achieved so far in this direction, the problem is now being studied a fresh with a view to working out means for the rapid expansion of adult literacy.

56. Programmes of the Ministry of Edu-c'ation provide for the further development of the National Fundamental Education Centre as a part of the National Institute of Education, production of literature for neoliterates, assistance for voluntary organisations in the field of social education and expansion of library facilities. The educational plans of States provide for libraries and continuation classes and, to a limited extent, for adult schools and other schemes for promoting adult literacy. The main provisions for social education are made under ihe community development programme through the schematic budget. Altogether, in the Third Plan, about Rs. 25 crores are expected at present to be available for social education.

57. Any large-scale and effective programme for adult literacy must be based on the closest possible cooperation at every level of personnel engaged in education and in community development. It will call for a pooling of the available resources in men and money, mobilisation of voluntary workers and organisations and development of adult education and literacy work at the block and village levels, and in every city and town, so that it takes the character more and more of a popular movement. Social education and adult literacy have to be developed as extension activities undertaken by educational institutions, specially village schools, in collaboration with panchayats and cooperatives and voluntary organisations. The broad aim should be that wherever a group of persons sufficient to- constitute a class desires to attain literacy, the requisite facilities by way of teachers and teaching materials should be made readily available. Every educational institution should be involved in this effort, and individual teachers participating in it should be given suitable honoraria. At the same time, the village panchayat and other agencies should make their due contribution towards the effort. While Social Education Organisers, Block Education Officers and individual educational institutions should work closely together to place the facilities needed at the service of local communities, it will be primarily for Pancliayat Samitis, village panchayats and voluntary organisations to create and maintain popular enthusiasm and develop adult education and literacy on a continuing basis in a manner related organically to their own needs and conditions. At every step the local leadership, the teachers and the voluntary workers should be drawn into the movement for the expansion of literacy both among men and among women. Proposals for a large-scale programme of adult literacy on these lines are being drawn up by the Ministry of Education in consultation with the Ministry of Community Development and Cooperation, and it is hoped that appreciable progress will be realised during the Third Plan.

58. Libraries.—An adequate system of libraries is an essential part of any well-organised system of education. The Library Committee which reported in 1959, set up by the Government of India indicated the large gaps between the present position and the demands of an adequate system of libraries. These can, however, only be filled through a long term and properly phased programme. During the Third Plan, steps will be taken to set up or develop all the four National Libraries at Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. There are provisions also for strengthening libraries at the State headquarters and tor increasing the number of libraries at the district and taluka levels. Besides these, educational institutions have libraries of their own. These will be improved and strengthened during the Third Plan. An Institute of Library Science was set up during the Second Plan to train key library personnel. This will be further developed during the Third Plan. Other universities also have facilities for research in library science and facilities for training library personnel.

Cultural Programmes

59. India's exceptional heritage in art, literature, dance, drama and music has to be further developed in response to the urges of a new generation. Archaeological monuments and ancient art are to be preserved and re-interpreted for communicating India's underlying cultural unity. Among important steps already taken are the establishment of the Lalit Kala Akademy (academy of fine arts), the Sahitya Akademy (academy of letters) and the Sangeet Natak Akademy (academy of dance, drama and music), the National Museum and the National Gallery of Modern Art. The other schemes carried out in the Second Plan were the reorganisation and development of museums and libraries and preparation of gazetteers which will be developed through the Third Plan Work of revision of District and Indian Gazetteers initiated during the Second Plan will be carried further. A scheme for the publishing of ancient manuscripts, cataloguing and preserving them and building up a microfilm library of rare manuscripts and for the acquisition of such manuscripts forms part of the Plan.

60. Along with Hindi and Sanskrit, it is of the utmost importance to develop modem Indian languages. It is proposed to undertake the preparation of bi-lingual dictionaries, award prizes for translatons, arrange for the preparation of encyclopaedias in the various regional languages, and of English-Indian language dictionaries, and publish old manuscripts and rare books as well as catalogues and bibliographies. The Plan also provides for the linguistic survey of India.

Contemporary Indian literature has been surveyed recently by the Sahitya Akademy. The National Book Trust is taking steps to encourage the production of good literature and to make such books available at moderate prices for libraries, educational institutions, and the public in general. The National Book Trust also aims at translation of well known books from foreign, languages and of standard books from one Indian language into another.

In the development of India's cultural unity, considerable importance must be attached to the propagation of Indian languages and their literatures in different parts of the country. This aspect has been emphasised by the Central Advisory Board of Education which has recommended the study at the secondary stage by every student of an Indian language other than his own mother-tongue. Facilities for the study of Indian languages are being provided at some universities. In the context of the Third Plan they need to be established on a much wider basis.

61. Reorganisation and development of museums will be undertaken on the lines recommended by the Expert Museum Survey Committee, 1955, and on the advice of the Central Advisory Board on Museums which has been established for this purpose. A project for the acquisition of art collections for the National Gallery of Modem Art is included in the Plan, and committees have been set up to advise the Government. The Salar Jung Museum at Hyderabad has been taken over by the Central Government and will be developed as a National Museum for the South India.

62. The Department of Archaeology has schemes like assessment of Monuments, copying of ancient paintings and survey of antiquities which will be continued in the Third Plan along with the strengthening of the Excavations Branch. A National Trust will be established to look after places of historical interest and national beauty which do not fall within the purview of the Department of Archaeology.

63. The Third Plan provides for research in the field of Anthropology and Ethnography. Trained personnel required for the various schemes will be made available and creative talent encouraged through scholarships for students and young workers in different cultural fields. Along with these, a few overseas scholarships have also been included.

64. Cultural relations with other countries will continue to be encouraged during the Third Plan. Among schemes subserving this objective are the development of the Indian Coundil for Cultural Relations, construction of the International Students' Home in the De!hi, University and re-productions of paintings, sculptures and Indian Art for the use of cultural organisations in foreign countries.

The scheme for establishing Buddha Jayanti monument in Delhi which started in the Second Plan will be completed in the Third Plan. Existing institutions of higher learning and research will be further developed.

65. Among other programmes are the setting up of a National Theatre and also a large open-air theatre in Delhi.

In the Second Plan an expenditure of Rs. 4 crores was incurred on various cultural programmes, Rs. 2.6 crores at the Centre and Rs. 1.4 crores in the States. The Third Plan allocation is Rs. 10 crores—Rs. 6 crores at the Centre and Rs. 4 crores in the States,

National Integration

66. The success of economic planning in India will largely depend upon our capacity to hold together as a nation in the midst of diversity of language, region, caste and religion. Unity in a democracy must be based on the consciousness of a common cultural heritage and commonly accepted future goals and on a constant effort to realise them. India has a rich and composite culture to which every section of the community has contributed and of which it has every reason to be proud. The essentials of this culture are broad-mindedness and mutual tolerance, balance between the material and the spiritual, and the cooperative way of life in which various individuals in a group are bound together by commonly accepted rights and obligations. India's future goals are embodied in the Constitution and her development plans are among the principal means for realising them.

67. Educational institutions have a vital role to play in bringing about national integration and social dohesion among the younger generation. The school programme should be designed to awaken in the pupils an awareness of national oneness and for this purpose, includes community living based on cooperative self-help and democratic principles, the study of India's history and culture in the curriculum at various stages of education and suitable textbooks to inculcate moral and social values among students. The school programme has to be supplemented by other activities such a.s programmes for bringing students together on a common platform and enabling them to gain first-hand knowledge of the diversified culture of the country through educational tours, the development of modem Indian and classical languages and making their rich store-house of literature available to larger numbers in different parts of the country through translations and the revival and development of India's composite cultural heritage through fine arts, dance, drama, music and literature. Various steps taken to create more widespread understanding of the Plan among students are intended to strengthen the forces of integration and national unity in a positive and constructive manner. One State Government has recently approved a scheme of 100 scholarships a year to be given to graduate and post-graduate students from different States which provision for residential facilities. Proposals on these lines can be of great value in promoting national integration.

The question of achieving emotional integration and promoting national consciousness is at present being studied by a special committee. with reference to the system of education and educational policies and programmes will need to be reviewed further in the light of such recommendations as it may offer,

ANNEXURE - I Schooling facilities for children in the age-group 6—11 (1960-61 and 1965-66)

name of the state enrolment in classes I—.V percentage of the population in the age-group 6—11 (estimated)
1960-61 1965-66 1960-61 1965-66
total bays girls total boys girls total boys girls total boys girls
Andhra Pradesh 28-20 17-50 10.70 44-20 25-40 18-80 60-3 74-0 46-2 84-5 96-1 72-7
Assam 10.68 6-79 3-89 15-08 8-99 6-09 61-7 73-7 48-0 77-4 86-6 66-9
Bihar 32 •00 24-00 8-00 48-00 30-00 18-00 53-5 80-0 26-9 72-6 90-4 54-7
Gujarat 20-00 12-30 7-70 26-63 15-62 11-01 72-0 85-9 57-3 84-2 95-8 71-9
Jammu and Kashmir 1 -97 1 -54 0-43 3-02 2-24 0-78 45-0 66-1 21-0 62.3 87-2 34-2
Kerala 23-44 12-58 10-86 26-61 14-28 12-33 108-8 118-0 99-7 108-7 117-8 99-7
Madhya Pradesh 20 -00 16-00 4-00 30-00 20-00 10-00 47-0 73-5 19-3 64-0 83-3 43-8
Madras . 33 -50 21-26 12-24 47-50 25-50 22-00 78-9 99-7 58-0 100-0 106-8 93-1
Maharashtra . 39-00 24-47 14-53 54-00 32-30 21 -70 73-3 89-0 56 6 90-5 104-8 75-3
Mysore . 21 -44 13-64 7-80 31-44 16-08 15-36 67-4 84-0 50-1 88-2 88-4 88-1
Orissa 10-00 7-50 2-50 16-00 10-50 5-50 47-8 71-6 23-9 64-6 85-0 44-3
Punjab 16-86 12.26 4-60 22-86 15-00 7-86 61-8 84-0 36-3 74-6 91-4 55-2
Rajasthan 11-51 9-51 2-00 21-00 13-90 7-10 42-0 66-2 15-3 68-2 86-2 48-4
Uttar Pradesh 40 -43 32-00 8-43 66-50 45-00 21-50 45-4 68-6 19-9 61-7 79-5 41-9
West Bengal . 28 -52 18.67 9-85 35-02 21-50 13-52 65-6 80-8 48-4 73-4 84-5 60-7
Delhi 2-91 1-68 1 -23 4-08 2-21 1-87 86-6 89-3 83-1 99-5 104-2 94.4
Himachal Pradesh 0-80 0-63 0-17 1 -14 0-71 0-43 48-8 73-3 21-8 69-5 183-5 54-4
Pondicherry 0-35 0.20 0-15 0-47 0-25 0-22 72-9 83-3 62-5 87 .0 92-6 81-5
Other Union Territories 1 -79 1-23 0-56 2-80 1 -68 1-12 62-6 84-2 40-0 78-1 91 -8 64-0
total 343.40 233-76 109-64 496-35 301-16 195-19 61-1 80-5 40-4 76-4 90-4 61-6

ANNEXURE II Schooling facilities for children in the age-group 11—14 (1960-61 and 1965-66)

name of the State enrolment in classes VI—VIU percentage of the pop' lation in the age-group 11—14 (estimated)
1960-61 1965-66 1960-61 1965-66
total boys girls total boys girls total boys girls total boys girls
Andhra Pradesh 3-55 2-74 0-81 6-13 4-68 1 -45 15-6 23-9 7-2 21-9 33.1 10-4
Assam 2-05 1 -49 0-56 3-25 2-20 1-05 27-4 37-4 16-0 35-3 44-8 24-5
Bihar 5-50 4-90 0-60 9-25 7-40 1-85 19-4 34-3 4-2 26-7 42-6 10-7
Gujarat 3-56 2-67 0-89 5-77 3-56 2-21 26-8 39-0 13-8 34-9 41-8 27-6
Jammu and Kashmir 0-60 0-51 0-09 0-88 0-72 0-16 27-8 44-0 9-0 33-5 51-4 13-0
Kerala .5-44 3-18 2-26 6-19 3-61 2-58 50-3 59-4 41-3 45-3 53-4 37-3
Madhya Pradesh 3-27 2-73 0-54 4-96 4-16 0-80 16-3 26-6 5-5 20-3 33-3 6-7
Madras 6-36 4-44 1-92 9-36 6-57 2-79 30-1 41-8 18-3 35-9 50-1 21-5
Maharashtra 7-25 5-35 1-90 11-47 8-22 3-25 28-5 40-7 15-5 36-2 50.2 21-2
Mysore 3-64 2-66 0-98 5-64 3-66 1 -98 23-8 34-1 13-1 29-5 37-5 21-2
Olissa 0-85 0-74 0-11 1-70 1 -36 0-34 7-9 13-8 2-0 13-1 21-0 5-2
Punjab 3-75 2-75 1 -00 5-55 3-54 2-01 28-3 38-8 16-3 33-8 40-3 26-4
Rajasthan 1 -91 1 -66 0-25 3-85 3-10 0-75 14-8 24-5 4-1 23-9 36-7 9-8
Uttar Pradesh 8.60 7-50 1 -10 11-60 10-00 1 -60 18-6 30-9 5-0 20-5 33-7 5-9
West Bengal 4-72 3-60 1 -12 9-02 5-30 3-72 21-1 30-3 10-7 33-3 36-7 29-4
Delhi 1 '02 0-70 0-32 1 '65 1-06 0-59 60-4 73-7 43-2 67-3 84-1 49-6
Himachal Pradesh 0-20 0-17 0-03 0-30 0-25 0-05 28-6 45-9 9-1 36-6 59-5 12-5
Pondicherry 0-08 0-06 0-02 0-10 0-07 0-03 33-3 50-0 16-7 35-7 51-0 21-4
Other Union Terri
tories 0-53 0-37 0-16 0-81 0-54 0-27 38-1 52-9 23-2 43-5 58-1 29-0
total 62-88 48-22 14-66 97-48 70-00 27-48 22-8 34-3 10-8 28-6 39-9 16-5

ANNEXURE III Schooling facilities for children in the age-group 14—17 (1960-61 and 1965-66)

name of the State — enrollment in class IX—XI percentage of the population in the age group 14-17 (estimated)
1960-61 1965-66 1960-61 1965-66
total boys girls total boys girls total boys girls total boys girls
Andhra Pradesh 1-86 1-62 0-24 2-36 1-94 0-42 8-8 15-1 2-3 9-6 15-7 3-5
Assam 1 -10 0-87 0-23 1-71 1-31 0-40 17-5 26-0 7-8 22-9 32-9 11-5
Bihar 3-10 2-90 0-20 5-00 4-40 0-60 12-4 23-0 1-5 17-3 30-3 4-2
Gujarat 1-48 1-14 0-34 2-26 1-53 0-73 12-2 18-2 5-8 15-9 20-8 10-6
Jammu and Kashmir 0-20 0-17 0-03 0-27 0-23 0-04 9.9 15-9 3-2 11-8 18-9 3-7
Kerala 2-25 1-39 0-86 2-95 1-80 1-15 21-6 27-0 16-3 24-2 30-0 18-7
Madhya Pradesh 0-78 0-67 0-11 1-10 0-95 0-15 4-3 7-3 1-3 5-3 9-0 1-5
Madras 2-66 1-98 0-68 3-97 2-71 1-26 13-4 19-9 6-9 17-3 23-4 11-0
Maharashtra 3-15 2-42 0-73 4-97 3-78 1-19 13-6 20-1 6-5 18-2 26-8 9-0
Mysore 1-47 1-16 0-31 2-05 1 -44 0-61 10-4 16-6 4-5 12-3 16-9 7-5
Orissa 0-40 0-36 0-04 0-80 0-67 0-13 4-2 7-5 08 7.4 12-4 2-4
Punjab 1-45 1-25 0-20 2-25 1-82 0-43 12-0 19-3 3-6 16-1 24-4 6-6
Rajasthan 0-86 0-79 0-07 1-53 1-33 0-20 7-4 13-0 1-3 11-2 18-6 3-1
Uttar Pradesh 5-12 4-60 0-52 7-40 6-60 0-80 12-2 20-9 2-6 15-3 26-1 3-5
West Bengal 2-38 2-00 0-38 5-30 4-00 1-30 11-2 17-6 3-8 21-9 31-1 11-5
Delhi 0-54 0-40 0-14 1 -19 0-90 0-29 32-5 43-0 19-2 60-1 88-2 30-2
Himachal Pradesh 0-06 0-05 0-01 0-08 0-06 0-02 10-2 16-1 3-6 9-8 14-3 5-0
Pondicherry 0-03 0-02 0-01 0-06 0-04 0-02 13-6 18-2 9-1 23-1 30-8 15-4
Other Union Territories 0-19 0-12 0-07 0-31 0 •20 0-11 12-03 16 0 9-6 16-4 21-1 11-7
Total 29-08 23-91 5-17 45-56 35-71 9-85 11-5 18-4 4-2 15-6 23-7 6-9
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