2nd Five Year Plan
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Chapter 26:

The period of the first five year plan witnessed the first steps in a national housing programme which will assume growing importance in future plans. This included a subsidised industrial housing scheme and a low income group housing scheme. Housing schemes for plantation labour and for labour in coal and mica mines were also implemented as part of the programme. These programmes are being substantially expanded during the second five year plan, in the course of which it is proposed to take up three new programmes, namely, rural housing, slum clearance and sweepers' housing and middle income group housing. The tasks undertaken through these programmes, and the proposals formulated for the second five year plan are explained briefly below. Against a total provision in the first plan of Rs. 38.5 crores, the second plan has allotted a sum ofRs. 120 crores which is distributed as follows:—

(Rs. crores)

Subsidised industrial housing 45
Low income group housing 40
Rural housing 18
Slum clearance and sweepers' housing 20
Middle income group housing 3
Plantation-housing 2
Total 120

Housing schemes for wokers in the coal industry are financed from the Coal Mines Labour Welfare Fund which is expected to provide over the five-year period about Rs. 8 crores. Housing schemes for mica and coal mines are the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour, the other schemes being administered by the Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply.

2. In addition to these schemes, substantial housing programmes are undertaken by the Ministries of Rehabilitation, Defence, Railways, Iron and Steel, Production, Communications, Works. Housing and Supply etc. State Governments and a certain number of local authorities also have their own housing programmes. It is estimated that during the first five plan the Ministry of Rehabilitation provided 323,000 houses or tenements in urban areas and State Governments and Central Ministries other than the Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply about 300,000 unit Including the other housing schemes mentioned above, public authorities provided during the first plan about 742,000 houses or tenements. It is difficult to estimate the extent of private construction. An enquiry carried out for the Taxation enquiry Commission indicated that the total investment on urban housing during 1953-54 was about Rs. 125 crores. If this is taken as a kind of average for the five year period, and the average cost of a house is assumed to be about Rs. 10,000, it would appear that during the first plan about 600,000 units have been provided in the private sector. Thus, during the first plan about 1.3 million urban houses were added. In the nature of things, the estimate of private construction is liable to vary according to the assumptions which are made.

3. For housing programmes to be undertaken during the second five year plan the following targtes have been adopted:

Number of houses/ tenements
Subsidised industrial housing 128,000
Low Income group housing 68,000
Re-housing of slum dwellers, including sweepers 110,000
Middle income group housing 5,000
Plantation labour housing 11,000
Total 322,000

Programmes undertaken by other Central Ministries, by State Governments and local authorities and those pertaining to coal mines labour are expected to provide 753,000 units, in addition to private construction, which was been reckoned for the second plan period at 800,000 units. Thus, the total programme for the second plan envisages the construction of about 1.9 million units as compared to about 1.3 million during the first plan.


4. The subsidised industrial housing scheme was at first "approved for industrial workers governed by the Factories Act, but now includes also mine-workers other than those engaged in the coal and mica industries for whom there are separate schemes. Under the industrial housing scheme Joans and grants are given by the Central Government to State Governments and public authorities, to employers and to co-operatives of industrial workers. For one-room tenements, the maximum cost prescribed is Rs. 4,500 for multi-storeyed tenements in Bombay and Calcutta and Rs. 2,700 elsewhere. For two-roomed tenements the cor-.responding figures are Rs. 5,430 (now raised to Rs. 5,930) in Bombay and Calcutta and at other places Rs. 3,340 for single-storeyed tenements and Rs. 3,490 for double-storeyed tenements. For State" Governments 50 per cent of the cost is given by way of loan and 50 per cent as subsidy; for co-operatives 50 per cent as loan and 25 per cent as subsidy; and for employers 37% per, cent as loan and 25 per cent as subsidy. The period of repayment is 15 years in the case of employers and 25 years in other cases.

5. In the course of the first five year plan a total construction' programme for 79,679 tenements was approved. Of these, 19,195 were planned for construction Bombay, 21,709 in Uttar Pradesh, 5,629 in Hyderabad, 5,181 in Madhya Pradesh, 3,444 in Madhya Bharat and smaller numbers in other States. The number of tenements completed before the end of the first five plan is estimated to be about 40,000. Out of the total number of tenements approved, 68,200 or about 85 per cent are being constructed by State Governments, 10,161 or about 13 per cent by private employers, and 1,318 or 1.6 per cent by co-operative societies of industrial workers. When the scheme was formulated a larger response was expected from employers and from co-operatives. This aspect of the scheme is under investigation and steps necessary for securing a greater response from employers and from co-operatives of industrial workers are being studied.


6. The low income group housing scheme, which was introduced towards the end of 1954, provides for the grant of long-term house building loans at a reasonable rate of interest to persons whose income does not exceed Rs. 6,000 per annum. Loans are given to individuals as well as to co-operatives whose members fulfil this condition. The assistance is restricted to 80 per cent. of the estimated cost ofconstruc-. tioir, including land, and is subject to a maximum of Rs. 8,000. The scheme also provides for loans to State Governments at 3V* per cent. interest repayable in three years for acquisition and development of land by local authorities and its allotment to prospective builders. Local bodies, charitable institutions, hospitals, etc., can obtain assistance under this scheme for building houses to be let to their low paid employees or on hire purchase terms. By the end of the second plan loans amounting to about Rs. 21.5 crores had been sanctioned for about 40,000 houses and for various land development schemes. The low income-group housing scheme has tried to meet a widely felt need and large numbers of persons have sought to take advantage of it. However, on account of high land prices and the lack of suitably developed sites, progress in the construction of houses under the scheme has not been as rapid as was hoped for.

7. The provision of developed land on an adequate scale and at reasonable cost is crucial to the success of all housing programmes; for, besides low income group housing, sites have to be provided for private individuals, for co-operatives and for private businesses. Private construction, especially amongst people of small or moderate means is likely to make greater progress if developed sites can be made available by local authorities at low rates, which may be subject to appropriate conditions regarding resale. High land values and a general scarcity of plots are an important reason for the slow progress of housing in recent years, especially in towns which have grown rapidly. It would therefore, appear desirable to provide assistance to State Governments and local authorities for developing sites for sale to persons who have low incomes and wish to build houses for their own use, whether or not they are applicants for loans under the specific low income group housing scheme which is being implemented. It is further suggested that a proportion of funds available under the scheme for low income housing might be used for land development on a planned basis, special attention being given to those towns where considerable congestion exists and to towns which are likely to develop more rapidly on account of development programmes to be undertaken during the second five year plan. State Governments may examine in consultation with individual local authorities how far action can be pursued along these lines. Sites might also be developed for lease as distinguished for sale.


8. As the data cited in the next section of this chapter illustrates, the improvement of housing conditions in rural areas is a >task of enormous dimensions. A large proportion of the 54 million houses in rural areas need to be rebuilt or substantially improved. Sooner or later, every village should have a plan which provides for wide streets with drains, proper spacing of houses, the location of community buildings and a playground for children. While the improvement of rural housing is an aspect of general rural development and there will be greater progress in housing as rural prosperity increases, there are certain directions in which specific action is called for. Such action may be on a small scale at first but can be readily extended in due course. In rural housing, the bulk of the materials employed are locally available, and fuller use can be made of them. There is considerable scope for voluntary co-operative labour and local community action and, if the right approach is adopted from the beginning, fairly rapid progress can be achieved. Increase in population has intensified the problem of congestion and additional sites are required almost everywhere. The worst congestion exists in the case of scheduled castes and tribes and other backward classes and artisans and, generally, amon" landless sections of the village population, although the problem is by no means confined to them. The housing conditions of under-privileged sections in village communities are often extremely bad and need urgent attention. Artisans live and work under, conditions which are already a serious impediment to the adoption of improved techniques, besides being injurious to health. The traditional designs of houses in villages, even for sections of the population which are somewhat better off, do not provide for the minimum requirements of light, ventilation and drainage. In all villages the need for introducing improved methods of excreta disposal is being increasingly felt and the time has come for a large-scale effort in this direction. Finally, improved lay-outs for village abadis have to be introduced, both for new villages and for expansions of existing villages.

9. These are some of the principal tasks to be undertaken for bringing about better living conditions in villages, and in all of them a great deal can be done in the course of the second plan if various rural programmes are implemented at the district arid village level in a coordinated manner with maximum cooperation from the people. Improvement of rural housing has to be viewed, not as an isolated objective, but as a part of the larger scheme of rural reconstruction, which includes improvement of agricultural production, cooperative working in as many fields as possible, rural water supply, drainage, sanitation, village roads, welfare programmes for scheduled castes and other backward classes and programmes for providing more work and better living conditions for village artisans. During the second plan, resources have been allocated for these and other activities. As the rural community programme succeeds and village. communities assume larger responsibilities, improvements in village housing conditions are to be expected. At this stage, what is required is that in eaph national extension and community project area and elsewhere, village communities should be made fully conscious of the housing problem and those steps which are urgent should be initiated, such as expansion of the village abadi. provision of sites and other assistance for Harijans and the various backward sections, adoption of better standards for houses constructed in the future and introduction of better lighting, . ventilation and drainage in existing houses.

10. During the first plan, some steps have been taken towards the improvement of living conditions in villages. In community project areas, 58,000 rural latrines, 1600 miles of drains and 20,000 wells have been constructed and 34,000 wells renovated, the corresponding figures in national extension areas being 80,000 ruraHatrines, 2700 miles of drains, 30,000 new wells and 51,000 renovated wells. In national extension and community project areas, about 29,000 houses were constructed and about the same number reconditioned. In a number of States, brick kilns are being established in rural areas, in some cases through cooperatives. In Uttar Pradesh, for instance, 16 cooperative brick kilns were established in 1950-51; by 1954-55 the number had risen to 752, and in villages within easy reach of brick kilns, improved types of houses are being built to an increasing extent. In several States attempts are being made to improve housing conditions of Harijans through allotment of sites and formation of co-operative housing societies. At the Centre, the Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply has set up a Rural Housing Cell with the object of studying various problems in this field and evolving better designs, lay-outs and methods of construction and better utilisation of local materials.

11. A rural housing programme is necessarily in the nature of an aided self-help programme in which education and guidance play a large part. Assistance from Government will mainly be in the form of technical advice, demonstrations of model houses and model villages, provision of improved designs and lay-outs, pilot experiments relating to the uses of local materials, organisation of co-operative village programmes based on voluntary labour and, in some measure, provision of financial assistance, especially for Harijans and other backward classes. It would be desirable for every State to have a small technical unit in its Housing Department for evolving designs of houses and lay-outs suited to local conditions, and for studying possible uses for local materials. Further, the various agencies of Government which are concerned with one aspect or the other of rural development should co-ordinate (heir efforts with one another and with the national extension service. In respect of Harijans and other backward classes, as proposed in Chapter XVI, extension workers should take steps to see that village communities try to provide free plots of land for house construction by landless agricultural workers. Wherever provisions for financial assistance exist, for instance, for improving housing conditions of Harijans and other backward classes and for setting up rural community .workshops, co-operative societies should be constituted and mutual aid teams organised. Rural housing programmes on these lines can help not only to raise rural living standards but also to increase rural employment and bring about fuller utilisation of the available man-power resources.


12. The existence of slums in every large town is a matter of serious concern. During the past two or three years a fraction of slum dwellers have been moved out of their habitations as a result of the subsidised industrial housing scheme. But, on the whole the slum problem continues much as it was. Unless steps are taken to make it impossible for new slums to come into existence, the problem of slums will become even larger. For preventing the growth of slums there are two sets of measures to be taken. In the first place, municipal by-laws must be enforced with the utmost strictness. In the enforcement of municipal by-laws the support of enlightened public opinion should be mobilised and potential slums should receive immediate attention. Secondly, master plans should be approved for every town, beginning with towns which are already large or have expanded much in recent years or are likely to grow rapidly in the next few years. For enforcing master plans, local authorities should have the requisite powers to implement zoning schemes, control the use of land and prevent ribbon development. Where necessary, new authorities may be set up. In Delhi a special development authority has been recently constituted.

13. While action is taken to prevent the development of slums in the future, it is also essential to tackle the problems of existing slums. To a large extent there is no alternative to their demolition and clearance, but there may be cases where measures for improvement are feasible. Hitherto proposals for slum clearance have been held back because of three difficulties, namely, the high cost of acquisition of slums, the unwillingness of slum dwellers to move to distant places on account of the fear that their social and economic life will be dislocated, and the need for subsidising the construction of houses so that they can be let to slum dwellers at rates which they can afford to pay. These aspects have been kept in view by the Central Government in evolving a new scheme for slum clearance and sweepers' housing for which a total provision ofRs. 20 crores has been made in the second five year plan.

14. With the object of reducing the cost of acquisition of slums, which are disproportionately high at present, especially in the larger towns, it has been recommended that State Governments should take advantage of the provisions of Article 31 of the Constitution. Delays which occur in land acquisition proceedings should also be eliminated through appropriate modifications in the legislation. Under the slum clearance and sweepers' housing scheme which is now to be implemented. State Governments are being asked to undertake social and economic surveys of their worst slum areas in the larger towns and to draw up phased programmes of slum clearance. The scheme is based on two main principles. The first principle is that there should be the minimum dislocation of slum dwellers and the effort should be to rehouse them as far as possible at or near the existing sites of slums, so that they may not be uprooted from their fields of employment The second principle is that in order to keep rents within the paying capacity of the slum dwellers, greater emphasis should be on the provision of minimum standards of environmental hygiene and essential civic amenities rather than on the construction of elaborate structures. Within the allocation made in the plan, it is proposed that the Central Government should provide 25 per cent of the cost as subsidy and 50 per cent. by way of loan repayable in 30 years. State Governments being required to find the remaining 25 per cent of the cost as subsidy from their own resources. It is proposed that wherever practicable, and especially where the rent paying capacity of the slum dwellers is extremely small. State Governments and local bodies should provide slum dwellers with developed and demarcated plots of land vaying from 1000 to 1200 sq. ft. in area as well as limited quantities of building materials, leaving it to slum dwellers to build houses for themselves as far as possible on the prescribed pattern and under appropriate guidance on a self-help and mutual aid basis. Standard costs of slum clearance and slum improvement projects have been worked out for the guidance of State Governments. The rehousing benefits to be provided under the scheme are intended for those slum families whose income does not exceed Rs. 250 per mensem in Bombay and Calcatta and Rs, 175 per mensem elsewhere. Families with higher incomes are to be encouraged to take advantage of loans under the low income group housing and other schemes and it is also proposed that they should be given assistance in procuring land and some part of the land developed by States may be set apart for them. Since a large proportion of slum dwellers in most towns are sweepers, it is expected that under the new programme large numbers of sweepers will be able to move to new houses from their present habitations.


15. In accordance with the provisions of the Plantation Labour Act, 1951, it is obligatory for every plantation to provide houses of prescribed standards for workers and their families residing in the plantations. While the larger plantations are able to fulfil this condition, for the smaller plantations Government assistance by way of loans is needed. During the second five year plan Rs. 2 crores are to be provided for this purpose. About 11,000 houses are expected to be built under this scheme.

16. For several years attempts have been made to provide improved houses for labour in the coal mines. In view especially of the large expansion programmes of the coal industry, the provision of houses for miners has considerable importance during the second five year plan. On the basis of the experience gained in working earlier proposals a new scheme has been recently formulated. The scheme is financed through a cess of six ahnas per ton of coal and coke despatched from the collieries, the annual income being almost Rs. 1 crore. Under the scheme the Coal Mines Labour Welfare Board will obtain land from colliery owners on lease for a period of 40 years free of cost or at nominal rent. Houses will be constructed by the Board and the colliery owners will pay the Board rent at Rs. 2 per tenement per month and workers will be charged rent not exceeding the contribution made to the Board. About Rs. 8 crores are expected to be made available for this purpose, and it is hoped to construct about 30,000 houses during the plan period.

17. The Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act, 1946 has prescribed an ad valorem excise duty of 2% per cent on mica exported from India. The annual income of the fund is about 15 lakhs. A subsidised housing scheme for mica miners was approved in 1953.

18. With effect from 1956-57, the Central Government have revived the scheme for the grant of house building advances to Central Government servants which was discontinued some years ago. Under the present scheme, advances upto 24 months' pay, subject to a maximum of Rs. 25,000 for new houses and Rs. 10,000 for extensions can be made. These will be repayable at 4Vt per cent interest per annum over a period of 20 years.

19. A provision ofRs. 3 crores has been made in the second plan for a middle income group housing scheme. The scheme envisaged collaboration with insurance companies and, according to the terms originally proposed, each loan was to be jointly approved by Government and an insurance company, the loan being limited to 80 per cent of the cost of a house, including the cost of land, of which Government was to provide 25 per cent and the insurance company the balance of 75 per cent Following the nationalisation of life insurance, further details of the scheme are at present under consideration.


20. The housing problem has grown steadily over the past few decades, both in rural and in urban areas. There have been few systematic surveys of housing conditions in India. Housing statistics are also extremely deficient and incomplete and data are not available showing either the progress of new construction or the extent of shortage. For organising housing programmes on any scale it is essential that accurate statistics should become available at regular intervals. The Central Statistical Organisation are taking steps, in collaboration with State statistical bureaux, to collect data on housing and building materials, both in the public and in the private sectors. Increasing building activity and construction will come to be an important factor in the regulatipn of the economy. The importance of statistical information in this field cannot therefore be too much stressed.

21. In its seventh round (October 1953 to March 1954) the National Sample Survey investigated housing conditions in 943 sample villages as well as in 53 sample towns and in the four cities of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. Of the 53 sample towns 14 had a population of 100,000 and above, 9 of 50,000 to 100,000,14 of 15,000 to 50,000 and 16 had a population of less than 15,000. The data obtained in the survey have been recently tabulated and, although they are still provisional, they throw light on certain aspects of the housing situation in the country. The investigation showed that in rural areas about 85 per cent of houses have mud plinths, 83 p^r cent walls of mud, bamboo and reed and about 70 per cent roofs of straw, grass, reed, mud etc. About 7 per cent. of the houses have plinths and walls of brick, cement or stone and roofs of corrugated sheets, tiles etc. More than 95 per cent of the houses have no latrines attached to them. As regards sources of drinking water, about 70 per cent depended on wells, 13 per cent. on tanks and ponds, 12 per cent on natural sources like lakes, springs and rivers, 3 per cent. on tubewells, less than 1.5 per cent. on tap water supply and about 1.5 per cent on other sources. About 81 per cent. of the houses had three rooms or less, one-roomed houses accounted for 34 per cent. and two roomed houses for 32 per cent. of the houses studied in the survey. About 38.5 per cent of the households had less than 100 square feet per head of floor space and about 32.5 per cent between 109 and 200 square feet.

22. In the urban areas studied during the investiga- • tion, nearly one-fourth of the houses had plinths, walls and roofs of mud. The study confirmed the impression that over the past two decades new construction has not kept pace with the growth of urban population. From the data available it appears that as against increase in urban population at a rate varying from 3 to 4 per cent. per annum new houses have been built at a rate varying, say, from 2 to 2.5 per cent About 44 per cent of the houses in urban areas have only one room, 28 per cent two rooms, 12 per cent 3 rooms and 16 per cent. 4 or more rooms. About 46 per cent of houses had less than 100 square feet per head. These facts illustrate the congestion which exists in urban areas and, as matters stand, is likely further to increase, i

23. The extent of the housing shortage which exists in urban areas can only be broadly estimated. For an urban population of 62 million there were in 1951 about 10 million houses. The shortage of houses in that year was roughly reckoned at about 2.5 million. The population of towns increased by 10.6 million between 1931 and 1941 and by 18.1 million between 1941 and 1951. During these decades the number of occupied houses in urban areas increased respectively by 1.8 and 1.7 million. Even apart from the question of the quality of housing, the quantitative shortage increased considerably during the period 1941—51. Alongside post war developments andTar-dtion there has been accelerated urban growth. Between 1951 and 1961 the total urban population is expected to increase by about 33 per cent so that. in the absence of effective measures and carefully formulated programmes of urban development, the shortage in 5961 may be twice as much as in 1951. Comprehensive housing policies and programmes are likely to emerge only after a few years of practical experience in working various housing schemes in the private sector and through public authorities. In this chapter an attempt is made to formulate a broad approach to housing policy and urban development in the context of economic planning and programmes for the development of both large-scale and small-scale industries.


24. Programmes for the expansion of housing to be implemented during the second five year plan by various public authorities and the anticipations in regard to construction in the private sector have been described earlier. In expanding housing facilities, during the past two or three years the main problems which have arisen and to which attention has to be given are the following:

  1. in rapidly growing towns developed sites are not available to a sufficient extent,
  2. construction in the private sector tends to concentrate on expensive houses intended to fetch high rents and the needs of the lower middle and middle classes are not adequately catered for;
  3. apart from assistance which the Government now provides, adequate institutional arrangements for housing finance do not exist;
  4. cooperative housing has made comparatively little progress;
  5. there is considerable need for research in building materials, and techniques and for prescribing standards of construction with due regard to the availability of local materials and the economic use of scarce materials; and
  6. with a few exceptions. State Governments are not yet adequately organised for undertaking and assisting extensive housing programmes.

25. The question of providing sites or plots for the construction of houses especially by persons of small or moderate means has been mentioned earlier. It has been suggested that a proportion of funds provided under the low income group housing scheme may be used on land development on a planned basis, so that plots can be made available at reasonable prices to persons who apply for loans under the scheme as well as to other persons with low incomes. Speculation in land, which occurs frequently, should be dealt with through control of land use and regulation of transfers of land.

26. The greater part of construction which occurs in the private sector is for rent and generally rents are high in relation to the rent-paying capacity of the vast majority. In developing private construction, the emphasis should be on providing facilities to enable persons of moderate means to build houses for themselves, and public authorities should take the necessary initiative. In the nautre of things, the low income-group housing scheme introduced by the Central Government can meet only a fraction of the total demand. There is need for adequate arrangements of an institutional character for housing finance. In 1955 the Housing Ministers' Conference suggested examination by States of the possibility of constituting State Housing Finance Corporations. In the past a limited amount of housing finance has been made available by insurance companies. In view of the nationalisation of life insurance and the urgent need for the provision of additional housing in most urban areas, we recommend that a special study should be undertaken by the Central Government of the institutions and methods which could be best developed in the special conditions of India for providing real estate credit on an adequate scale. House building has an important role in expanding employment opportunities and stimulating capital formation and private saving. From this aspect also it is desirable to take early steps to evolve appropriate institutions for providing financial and other assistance. In this connection, the experience of cooperative housing societies in various urban areas and amongst industrial workers should be examined with a view to determining the directions in which cooperative housing schemes may be pursued with special advantage and the character of the institutional and other facilities required for the development of cooperative housing.

27. In accordance with a recommendatfon in the First Five Year Plan, for developing building research and techniques, the National Buildings Organisation was established in 1954 in the Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply. The functions of the Organisation are to recommend measures for promoting quicker, cheaper and better construction and economy in the use of scarce materials and manpower. The Organisation is also attempting to compile and collect statistics relating to building activity and building materials and to serve as a clearing house for information regarding the technology of building designs, materials and construction. The National Buildings Organisation has drawn up a comprehensive programme of research through the various research laboratories and institutions. On the development side, the problems under investigation include measures to improve the quality of bricks, the manufacture, of boards, partition walls, tiles, hollow bricks, etc. The use of seasoned and treated timbers and bamboos in construction, cheap methods of fixing doors and windows to masonry, current uses of scarce materials in construction and possibilities of reducing the use of cement and replacing it by lime where possible, are also being studied. The National Buildings Organisation is also investigating the production of kankar lime and other limes. Work on mud plaster is being undertaken from the point of view of moisture resistance. In view of the need to economise in the use of scarce materials and reduce housing costs, steps are being taken to evolve standards of housing which will be satisfactory without being expensive or ostentatious and will involve the use of the maximum extent of local materials after appropriate processing.

28. The question of organisation for carrying out housing programmes was considered at the Housing Ministers' Conference which was held in 1955. The Conference recommended that in each State there should be a department or agency to coordinate the various aspects of housing, especially, in regard to the assessment of housing needs, preparation of master plans, acquisition of land and implementation of house building programmes. As housing and other construction programmes are undertaken on a large scale, the need has been felt for organising systematic training of masons, brick-layers, carpenters, plumbers and other personnel. Some steps in this direction have been recently taken both by the Ministry of Works, Housing and Supply and by a few States, but considerable expansion of training programmes is required.


29. The shortage of housing in urban areas calls for a series of measures for the expansion of housing facilities. If attention is concentrated only on these measures, in face of the present trends in urban development, the shortage of housing will continue to be accentuated. It is necessary, therefore to consider urban housing, not merely as a problem by itself or as an attempt continually to catch up with events but as part of the wider problem of the planning of urban areas and of their economic and other relationships with the regions in which they are situated.

30. Between 1921 and 1951, the urban population rose from about 27 million to about 62 million, the proportion of the urban to the total population increasing from about 11 to more than 17 per cent As the national economy has become more closely integrated, the economic, social and political importance of towns has increased. In the nature of things, much of the development in the past has been of an unplanned character. Large towns have attracted to themselves new industries and services and the problems of providing housing and other amenities have become increasingly acute. Rise in land values, speculative buying of lands in the proximity of growing towns, high rentals and the development of slum areas are features common to most large towns. Few municipal administrations have been able to cope with the problems which have thus grown cumulatively. With a view to the closer understanding of those aspects of urban growth which bear specially on rural-urban migration and the development of employment opportunities, the Research Programmes Committee of the Planning Commission has initiated surveys of 21 leading cities and towns.* In recent years, much thought has been given to problems of rural planning; similar attention has now to be given to the complex problems of urban development and re-development. India is on the threshold of rapid industrial development Unless there is adequte forethought and planning, industrial progress will be accompanied by serious social and other problems in urban areas which may become increasingly difficult to manage. It is, therefore, necessary that from now on the future course of urban development should be viewed by public authorities at the Centre, in the States and in each region in its correct perspective. Even though quick results may not be forthcoming, appropriate policies should be laid down from the start and determined efforts should be made to follow them with the support of enlightened public opinion.

*Agra, Allahabad, Aligarh, Amritsar, Baroda, Bhopal, Bombay, Calcutta, Cuttack,. Delhi, Gorakhpur, Hyderabad, Hubli, Jaipur, Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Lucknow, Madras, Poona, Surat and Visakhapatnam.

31. If urban development and re-development and housing policies are viewed in the context of planned economic development and rapid industrialisation, three problems claim special study, namely, (a) methods of securing planned development in urban areas, (b) expansion of housing facilities, and (c) development of civic administrations along sound and progressive lines. The second problem has been examined at some length in this chapter. On the third aspect, it is sufficient to remark here that- for urban development to proceed on desirable lines, competent municipal administrations with adequate powers, resources and admininistrative and technical staffs are essential. Urban development and redevelopment throws increasing responsibility on municipal administrations which few of them are at present able to discharge. In many western countries, local authorities are the principal agencies for implementing housing and other civic programmes. In India also, it is essential to use local authorities more and more as agencies of the State for providing housing and other civic amenities in keeping with the requirement of economic development

32. If planned urban development is to be undertaken and the lines along which various urban or potentially urban centres are to develop over the course of the next ten or fifteen years, there is need for a clear conception of the pattern of economic development and especially of industrialisation which is to be followed in determining the distribution, location and size of various industrial and other undertakings. These questions have been considered in the appropriate chapters. Within the framework of plan's drawn up on the basis of territories such as districts and States and for different sectors of development such as agriculture, industry, transport, etc. and-for their more efficient implementation, it is also necessary to work out physical and economic plans based upon the study of urban-rural regions, viewing each region as an area for integrated, local planning. The regional planning approach is required especially for lagre and growing towns and for river valley areas which are being developed through new irrigation and power projects. The aim ultimately must be to evolve balanced urban-rural regions which would provide stable and diverse employment and, through the provision of the necessary economic and social over-heads, achieve development at reasonable social and economic cost

33. To achieve this objective, action has to be taken in each State along five principal directions:

(1) Each State should have a phased programme for the survey and preparation of master plans for all important towns. These should provide for integration of land use and zoning principles in each town or area with a view to obtaining the maximum amount of efficiency and economy in working and living conditions. In this connection towns and cities such as Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Poona etc. would require early attention.

(2) A number of new towns have recently come into existence; others are likely to develop rapidly during the second and subsequent plans as industrialisation proceeds. Sindri, Du'rgapur, Bhilai, Rourkela, Chit-taranjan and Neiveli are illustrations of towns in this group. As early as possible, the preparation of regional plans for such towns should be taken in hand.

(3) Development of river valley areas should be based on careful surveys of their topography, resources and development needs and potential. A pilot project for a regional planning survey of the Damodar Valley are will shortly be undertaken. Surveys on similar lines are required, for instance, in areas served by the Bhakra Nangal, Hirakud, Chambal, Tungabhadra, Koyna and other important projects.

(4) Town and country planning legislation has been so far enacted in four States, namely, Madras, Bombay, Hyderabad and Saurashtra. Uttar Pradesh has such legislation under consideration. It is recommended that town and country planning legislation should be enacted in all States and the necessary machinery for its implementation should be set up. The preparation of town plans is at present often held up for lack of qualified personnel. The expansion of existing facilities for the training of town planners and architects has been provided for in the plan.

(5) There are a number of programmes in the second five year plan which have considerable bearing, on urban development and re-development, such as, large industrial and other undertakings whose location is determined or influenced by the Government, development of village and small industries and of industrial estates and townships, major irrigation and power projects, small town an rural electrification schemes, establishment of warehouses and marketing centres for agricultural produce, urban water supply and sanitation schemes, industrial and low-income group housing schemes, expansion of transport facilities etc. These and other programmes should be implemented in an integrated manner with careful attention to their impact on urban and regional development and with reference to the present and future requirements of planning in different parts of each State or region. Such coordinated planning will ensure that the resources devoted to these programmes will yield satisfactory results, and the costs of economic development as well as of providing civic amenities will be reduced.

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