1st Five Year Plan
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Introduction || APPENDIX (CH-4) || APPENDIX (CH-9) || ANNEXURE (CH-12) || APPENDIX (CH-14) || APPENDIX (CH-24) || APPENDIX (CH-29) || Conclusion
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Chapter 33:


Education is of basic importance in the planned development oi a nation. The educational machinery will have to be geared for the specific tasks which the nation sets itself through the Plan so as to make available in the various fields personnel of suitable quality at the required rate. The educational system has also an intimate bearing on the attainment of the general objectives of the Plan inasmuch as it largely determines the quality of the manpower and the social climate of the community. In a democratic set up, the role of education becomes crucial, since it can function effectively only if there is an intelligent participation of the masses in the affairs of the country. The success of planning in a democracy depends also on the growth of the spirit of co-operation and the sense of disciplined citizenship among the people and on the degree to which it becomes possible to evoke public enthusiasm and build up local leadership. It is essential for the successful implementation of the Plan that the educational programme helps to train the people to place responsibilities before rights and to keep the self-regarding outlook and the force of the acquisitive instinct within legitimate bounds. The educational system should also satisfy cultural needs, which is essential for the nealthy growth of a nation. The system should stimulate the growth of the creative faculties, increase the capacity for enjoyment and develop a spirit of critical appreciation of arts, literature and other creative activities. The fulfilment of the objectives mentioned above, will lead to the development of an integrated personality in the individual, which should be the first and foremost aim of any system of education.

2. The lines of future reorganisation have become clear in many directions as a result of the deliberations of various committees and commissions set up in recent years and the pioneering work of private institutions. The Planning Commission is mainly concerned with viewing education as a part of the total national effort, establishing and strengthening its links with other aspects of national life and assigning priorities for the various educational programmes awaiting implementation.


3. An analysis of the existing situation reveals the following features that need special attention :—

(l) Considering the size of the population, the overall provision of educational facilities is very inadequate. They are provided for only 40.0* per cent of the children of the age-group 6-11 and 10.0 per cent of the persons of the age-group 11-17 and 0.9 per cent 01 those of the age-group 17-23. The directive of the Constitution, however, is that free and compulsory education should be provided for all children up to the age of 14 within ten years of the commencement of the Constitution. This will necessitate expansion of facilities at higher levels also as more and more students pass out of primary schools. The literacy percentage of our population is 17.2 which is only a very rough measure of the huge task lying ahead in the field of social education. Similarly facilities for technical education need to be considerably expanded to meet the needs of the country adequately.

(2) The overall structure of the educational system is defective in many ways, one of which is that it is top-heavy. Although the provision at the secondary stage is properly proportioned to that at the primary stage, that at the university stage is larger than the base structure can profitably support. This is revealed also by the distribution of educational expenditure among the various stages. In 1949-50, for example, the directt expenditure on primary schools was only 34-2 per cent of the total educational expenditure, whereas a sound and properly proportioned system of education requires that the major share of this expenditure should be incurred on primary education. The emphasis on primary education needs to be very considerably increased during the period of the Plan, which would necessitate a corresponding increase in secondary education during the next stage of our development, though some expansion would be inevitably required even during the present period to cope with the increased demand for teachers for the large number of schools at the primary stage that would come into being. In view of the decision of the Government to adopt the basic pattern at this stage, the need of teachers for these schools will require expansion of facilities at the secondary stage on post-basic lines. Otherwise, however, both in the field of secondary and university education, the general problem is one of consolidation rather than expansion, except in certain fields like Agricultural and Technical High Schools af the secondary stage and Public Administration, Social Service Administration, Business and Industrial Administration, etc., at the university stage—where provision is non-existent or insufficient. Another reason is that the recent expansion in these fields has not always been on a sound basis with adequate provision of teachers, equipment, etc., which has unduly lowered standards.

There are grave disparities between different States in the matter of provision of educational facilities. The expenditure on education compared to total revenues and population also varies in different States. The internal distribution of expenditure should be so arranged and Central grants should be so dispensed that at least the serious inequalities between States tend to disappear.

Educational facilities are not properly distributed between urban and rural areas. Whereas 82 '8 per cent of the population live in rural areas the percentage of the total number of pupils in recognised primary, middle and high schools that were studying in rural areas in 1949-50, was 60, 67 and 26 respectively. The respective percentages in 1937-38 were 82, 72 and 28. At the university level facilities are practically non-existent in the rural areas. Expenditure on recognised educational institutions in rural areas fell from 36 per cent of the total expenditure in 1937-38 to 30 per cent in 1949-50 although the total expenditure on education in rural areas had considerably increased.

There is lack of balance between provision of facilities for different sections of society. The problem of backward tribes and scheduled castes is dealt with under Social Welfare. Of special concern in this regard is the neglect of women's education. Whereas women constitute nearly half the population the girl pupils in the primary, middle and high school stages in 1949-50, were only 28, iS and 13 per cent respectively of the total number of pupils studying in these stages. In universities and colleges* for the same year girls were only 10'4 percent of the total-number of students. At the primary stage most of the States have not found it feasible to have separate schools for girls and the only remedy lies in propaganda among parents to remove their prejudice against co-education in primary schools. Co-education at the middle and high school stages may not be feasible in the present state of our society, and emphasis would need to be laid on the development of middle and high schools for girls. Girl students should also be encouraged to take to higher studies by freestudentships and scholarships.

The various stages of the educational system are not clearly and rationally marked out. The duration and standards of the primary and secondary stages vary considerably in different States. The relationship of ba^ic education with ordinary primary education and that of post-basic education with existing secondary education has not been clearly denned. Again, while most of the students finish their educational career at the close of the primary stage in the first instance and then at the end of the secondary stage, none of these stages is complete by itself. The proper definition and integration of the different stages and branches of the educational system are an urgent necessity.

(3) Another disturbing feature of the situation is the large wastage that occurs in Various forms at different stages of education. At the primary stage quite a large number of pupils discontinue their studies even before obtaining a state of permanent literacy. Of the total number of students entering schools in 1945-46 only 40-0 per cent reached class IV in 1948-49. The expenditure on the remaining 60-0 per cent was largely wasted. The experiment of compulsion, which is generally regarded as the only remedy for improving the position, has not made much progress. In 1948-49 approximately only 115 lakhs pupils were under compulsion and most of the States expressed their inability to enforce it. The problem of 'stagnation', that is, where a pupil spends a number of years in the same class, is also serious. There is, moreover, incomplete utilisation of existing facilities, as is shown by the unsatisfactory results of a large number of students. This wastage is largely due to the poor quality of teaching as well as faulty methods of education. Another form of wastage is the unplanned growth of educational institutions.

The absence of adequate facilities for technical and vocational education results in a much larger number of students going in for general education than is justified by the requirements of the country or the tastes and aptitudes of the pupils. The undue emphasis on the acade-nlic and theoretical aspects of education retards the development of the practical sense, initiative and resourcefulness among large numbers of students. One result of this is that educated people tend to depend too much on employment by Government or commercial concerns, which can absorb only a limited number. This also leads to undue strain on the resources of universities as students, on the completion of secondary education, tend to drift to universities in the absence of any other alternative. Education should, therefore, be given a more practical bias from the very beginning and at the post-secondary stage there should be greater adjustment between the needs of the country and the output of educational institutions.

(4) The position in regard to teachers is highly unsatisfactory. A very large percentage of them are untrained. In 1949-50 the percentage of untrained teachers was 41-4 per cent in primary schools and 46-4 per cent in secondary schools. For purposes of educational reorganisation most of the trained teachers will also require considerable retraining. Expansion of training facilities, therefore, deserves very high priority.

Another feature of the situation is the dearth of women teachers, who are especially suited, for balivadis (including pre-schools and day nurseries) and primary schools. To remove this shortage, facilities for part-time work in schools should be provided for married women, who cannot devote their whole time to the profession. Indigent women should also be trained as teachers.

The scales of pay and conditions of service of teachers are generally very unsatisfactory and constitute a major cause of the low standards of teaching.

(5) The high cost of education, especially at the university level, prevents many an intelligent student from proceeding to higher studies. The provision of free-studentships and scholarships needs to be considerably increased. It should be a principle of State policy that none who has the capacity to profit by higher education should be debarred from getting it. Since the limited economic resources of the State will place limitations on the implementation of this principle, facilities for part-time work by students to meet the expenses of their education should be developed to the utmost possible extent.

(6) The undue stress on examinations and memory work in the present system of education is not conducive to the development of originality or a spirit of research.

(7) Lack of facilities prevents institutions from building up the physical and mental health of students.

(8) There has been a general neglect of the study of our own culture with the result that the educated classes are often divided by a gulf from the mass of the people. The system of education should help in building up the cultural and political identity of the nation. Graded text books for the purpose of building up civic loyalties and creating understanding of democratic citizenship should be prepared.

(9) The meaning of planned development and the Five Year Plan needs also to be universally taught in our educational institutions and included in social education programmes.

4. Some attempts have been made to remodel the system in such a way as to suit our needs better. At the primary level the basic pattern has been accepted and a beginning has been made in the matter of opening new basic schools and converting sonie of the existing primary schools into basic ones. Some attempts have also been made to make secondary education more broad-based and practical. But by and large teaching continues on old lines and practically the entire task of remodelling the system still remains to be done.

5. Summing up, the needs of the present situation are :

  1. re-orientation of the educational system and integration of its different stages and branches ,
  2. expansion in various fields, especially in those of basic and social education, remodelled secondary education and technical and vocational education ;
  3. consolidation of existing secondary and university education and the devising of a system of higher education suited to the needs of the rural areas ;
  4. expansion of facilities for women's education, especially in the rural areas ;
  5. training of teachers, especially women teachers and teachers for basic schools, and improvement in their pay-scales and conditions of service ; and
  6. helping backward States by giving preferential treatment to them in the matter of grants.


6. In the context of our needs, our resources are very inadequate. The Committee on the Ways and Means of Financing Educational Development in India estimates that a national system of education—providing education for 100 per cent of the children of the age-group 6-14, secondary education for 20 per cent of those coming out of the first stage, university education for 10 per cent of those passing out of high schools, technical education on a modest scale and other minor items—when it comes into full operation, will require an annual expenditure of nearly Rs. 400 crores. In addition, for basic and high schools only approximately Rs. 200* crores will be necessary to train 27 lakhs of teachers that will be required and Rs. 272 crores for buildings. The total number of teachers in 1949-50 was about 7f lakhs, most of whom would require retraining to fit in the schemes of educational reorganisation. No authoritative assessment exists of our present resources in buildings but it is common knowledge that most of the buildings, at least of the primary schools, are very inadequate for the purpose for which they are used. In spite of considerable increase in the provision for education in recent years the total educational expenditure in 1949-50 was only about Rs. 100 tcrores.

7. The Five Year Plan makes a provision ofRs. 151 -66 crores (35 -02 crores for the Centre and Rs. 116-64 crores for the States) for educational development or ofRs. 30-33 crores per annum. This average indicates an increase of 55 per cent over the development expenditure in 1950-51 which was Rs. 19-55 crores for the Centre as well as the States The inadequacy of this provision is all too obvious. It is also obvious that the gap between needs and resources available, or likely to be available, cannot be covered from the State finances alone. And yet it has to be recognised that the provision of a certain minimum of education to all citizens within a reasonably short period of time is an essential pre-requisite, next only to food, for the successful implementation of development programmes and survival of democracy in India. It is extremely urgent, therefore, that all other possible sources of help should be discovered and fully utilised.

8. In the context of prevailing conditions a larger share of responsibility for social services will have to be borne by the people themselves. In the case of education there is evidence that the people are keen to contribute in cash, kind, labour or land for creating the necessary facilities. It should be a major aim of the Central and State Governments and non-official organisations to explore this avenue and harness this urge in the people by using their influence, judiciously providing technical aid and grants, and stimulating a spirit of emulatiol among local communities. The school should become a focus for the joint endeavoui of the community and the hub of its social, cultural and economic life. This approach ca •> take different forms from putting up a building, supplying furniture and equipment, making -ontribution in cash or kind at the time of the harvest or labour in the off-season, to taking up responsibility for running the school as their own. It is possible to visualise the village community as not merely supplying adequate land but also digging wells and supplying bullocks, seeds, manure, implements and labour for cultivating the land so that its produce is a net profit to the school which can be used for running it and the many social, cultural and other activities of the community that would grow round it. The village community has experience of this mutual-aid activity for their own farming needs. Its administration will, therefore, not require any specialised organisation. This will give opportunity to the constructive workers, the members of the Bharat Sevak Samaj and Panchayats and will introduce a series of activities so essential for creating and maintaining interest, confidence and initiative in the local community. It will give the administrator—with his influence, organisational capacity and experience—scope for constructive leadership amidst the routine of his work. Besides mobilising the help of the local community for the cause of education every attempt must be made to develop the productive aspect of basic and social education.


9. The paucity of our immediate resources makes it imperative that our programmes be selected according to a careful system of priorities, so that the most urgent needs may be met and the most effective, use made of the money spent. In view, however, of the varying needs and resources of different parts of the country and the differences in their general and educational development, these priorities can be indicated only in broad outlines. The importance of the educational programme in the general plan of development lies in the fact that it is only through a properly organised educational approach that the personnel of the requisite calibre at various levels, required for the implementation of the Plan, can be trained and made available. This requires, firstly, the improvement and strengthening of existing institutions and secondly, the expansion of facilities on a considerable scale as and when resources become available.

10. The various stages of education are, however, so closely interlinked that it is not possible to lay down any strict order of priorities amongst them, so far, at any rate, as the improvement of the existing facilities is concerned. Better primary or basic education depends on better teachers, who can only be supplied if standards of secondary education are greatly improved, and this, in turn, depends on the provision of better teachers, who are educated in the universities and are prepared.for their profession in the training colleges. That is why, it is necessary to ensure that there is a general advance and improvement on all fronts.

11. Subject to these remarks, however, it may be stated that side by side with the consolidation and improvement of existing facilities, high priority should be given to experiments and research in improved educational methods; to the training of teachers; to the preparation of literature for teachers, children and adults; to providing adequate facilities for basic and social education; and to developing, to the fullest possible extent, the facilities for technical and vocational education at lower levels, as well as for training high grade technicians in certain selected fields. In the field of university education, high priority should be given to the improvement of standards and the development of post-graduate work and research.

12. In the context of the remarks made above, the Commission is of the view that in the educational development envisaged, a serious attempt should be made to achieve the following broad targets in the various sectors, subject to such modifications as may be required to suit local conditions :—

  1. At the conclusion of the Five Year Plan, educational facilities should be provided for at least 60 per cent of all the children of the school-going age within the age group 6—ii, and these should develop, as early as possible, so as to bring children up to the age of 14 into schools in order to cover the age-group 6—14, which should be regarded as an integral whole for the purpose of providing basic education. The percentage of girls of the school-going age (6—n) attending schools should go up from 23'3 per cent in 1950-51 to 40 per cent in 1955-56.
  2. At the secondary stage*, the target should be to bring 15 per cent of the children of the relevant age-group into educational institutions. The percentage of girls of this age-group attending schools should go up to 10 per cent.
  3. In the field of social education, we should envisage that at least 30 per cent of the people (and 10 per cent of women) within the age group of 14 to 40 receive the benefit of social education in the 'a ider sense of the term.

No targets have been laid down for the university education as the problem here is mostly one of consolidation rather than expansion. It is, moreover, noi possible to determine quantitative! y the progress in higher education with the same ease as in the case of earlier stagey.

We estimate that with State resources alone the country will be able to provide schooling facilities for 5 5' 7 per cent of the children of the age-group 6-11 and 13.3 per cent of those of the age-group 11-17. The gap between these figures and our targets, stated earlier, will be bridged by the development and utilisation of local resources and the productive capacity of students by the introduction of crafts in schools.


13. Role of the Central Government—Educational programmes are carried out by the Central Government, the State Governments, local bodies and private agencies. According to the Constitution, education is primarily the concern of the States. The Central Government have special responsibility in certain fields which have been clearly defined in List I of the Seventh Schedule and share responsibility with the State Governments in certain other fields also enumerated therein. It is, however, generally recognised that the Centre has also an overall responsibility for helping, co-ordinating and guiding the work of the States so that national policies can be evolved and satisfactorily worked out. In view of the shortage of funds, the Centre has so far not been able to do much in this direction. In spite of the substantial improvement, which the Plan makes in this respect, the total resources available with the Centre still remain inadequate and call for the utmost care in their disposal, in order to obtain the maximum results. Except for helping especially backward States, we feel, that in the field of pre-university education, it would be very difficult at present for the Centre to undertake responsibility for expansion. It should confine itself to helping, on a contributory basis, those States which are willing to co-operate in certain activities of national significance like research in techniques, training of especially selected personnel, production of literature, conducting pilot experiments, etc. Similarly in other fields, where the Constitution does not lay down a definite responsibility on the Centre, grants-in-aid should be related to specific schemes, and an adequate machinery set up to see that the grants are actually spent for the purpose for which they are meant. At the university level the setting up of a University Grants Commission has already been recommended. The work of guiding and co-ordinating technical educatio.1 in the country is performed by the All-India Council for Technical Education. Simil >rly it is necessary to have an expert body at the Centre to guide and co-ordinate work in the States m regard to basic, social and secondary education, especially at this stage when much pioneering work remains to be done. This body should also frequently assess the work done in different States and publicize the results. In this way sound foundations would be laid for the expansion programme when more funds become available. Another very important activity, not especially mentioned in the Constitution but which the Centre has to take up, is the promotion of the federal language.

14. Role of local bodies—The question of the relationship between the State Governments and local bodies arises mostly in the field of primary education. In this field a recent committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education has examined the problem and its recommendations are under consideration by the various State Governments. In order to secure maximum local help and co-operation and to build education closely round the life of the people, progressive decentralisation in the administration of education at lower levels should be effected as conditions become more and more favourable. Care should; however, be taken to ensure broad uniformity of educational policy and efficient and impartial administration.

15. Role of private agencies—Private agencies have always an important role to play in a democracy. In India where till recently they have had the major share of responsibility for welfare activities, they occupy a special place. Private agencies are generally able to manage things more cheaply than Government for they are able to appeal more effectively to the idealism of workers and are comparatively free from red tape. In view of these considerations and the fact that mobilisation of the efforts of the entire nation is necessary to meet the situation in regard to education, for which private agencies are especially fitted, it should be an item of priority in the Plan to help such agencies to develop their capacity fully and to function effectively. Both the Central and State Governments have schemes for helping private agencies.


16. The highly impressionable, plastic and educationally potent period of a child's life preceding the age of six, when compulsion begins, has been neglected in India although it is all the more important in this country in view of the extremely depressing conditions of home life in most cases. The existing schools are mostly concentrated in the towns and cater for the children of the richer classes while the need of the rural areas and of industrial labour, which is very much greater, is almost completely neglected.

17. In view of the shortage of funds Government can accept only limited responsibility in this field, confined to research in evolving methods suited to our needs, training of teachers, helping private agencies who take up this work in the rural areas by grants-in-aid and running a few model balwadis or nursery schools in each State. In labour areas, it should be the responsibility of industry to make provision for such schools. In other areas the major burden of organising and running balwadis should be borne by local bodies. Where resources do not allow the opening of fulltime institutions, day nurseries, working for a few hours in mornings and evenings, should be organised by voluntary workers. Where buildings are not available seasonal open-air nurseries may be organised.


18. The provision of free and compulsory primary education, is the first necessary step towards establishing equality of opportunity for every citizen. At this stage, we deal with the entire future human resources of the country and, if it is properly handled, a way can be found for the full development and the most effective use of these resources.

19. Basic education—A most important development in the t; eld of education in recent years has been the acceptance of basic education by the country as the pattern for the education of children of the age-group 6-14. Work in this direction, however, has only just begun. It has, moreover, varied to such an extent in the matter of approach and quality in different places that it is impossible to get an idea of the work done from statistics alone. This confusion should, however, disappear after the clear lead given by the Central Advisory Board of Education in March, 1952, when they enunciated: "A system of education cannot be considered as basic education in the real sense unless (a) it provides an integrated course, including both the junior and the senior stages, and (b) places adequate emphasis on craft work in both its educational and productive aspects ". The broad framework of basic education has been worked out and given inspiring expression at some places. But it has to be recognised that many of its details remain to be worked out and we are far from having fully developed the potentialities of basic education.

20. The foremost task in the field of basic education is the improvement of technique and the development of methods, by which it can be passed on to the vast majority of teachers of rather low educational qualifications and average ability. To this end at least one group of model basic institutions should be opened in each of the Part' A ' and ' B ' States and in Delhi among part' C ' States. Each group should consist of a number ofpre-basic and basic schools, a post-basic school, a teachers' training school and a teachers' training college. These institutions should be located near each other. One of their important tasks will be to develop a spirit of self-help and co-operation in the school community as well as to work for an allround reconstruction of the community around. In addition, a few experimental basic schools should also be opened in urban areas to discover necessary modifications of the basic system, as it has been worked out in the rural areas, to make it suitable for urban areas as well.

21. Our experience of basic education hitherto is very limited. Even so, as the recent inquiry conducted in regard to its productive aspect by the Ministry of Education shows, wherever the scheme has been given a fair trial it has yielded encouraging results in spite of serious handicaps. The stage has arrived for a thorough investigation of the obstacles in the way of the full development of the productive capacity of basic education, as far as that can be done without sacrificing educational interests, and a determined effort to remove them. Any success in this direction would help in the spread of free and universal basic education for the people.

22. The States have hitherto tried to run mostly basic schools of five classes which are truncated units not only economically but also educationally. We would recommend that all States should run, wherever conditions permit, eight-year full-fledged basic schools instead of five-year schools. The experience of Bihar indicates that hardly any additional recurring exp enditure would be involved in adding the three senior classes.

23. Insufficient attendance seriously affects the productivity of most basic schools. The remedy does not lie merely in compulsion. The positive approach to the question is to improve the economic condition of the villager. The burden on him of supporting the child, should be lightened by providing in schools free lunch, wherever possible, and by organising, voluntary work outside school hours to enable pupils to produce essential consumable or marketable articles. Holidays should be so timed that labour of children is available to their parents in the busy season. The practical aspect of basic education and its capacity to serve the community should be fully developed to convince the villagers of its utility and win for it their loyalty. The teachers should also be taught in training colleges to handle more than one class at a time. Perhaps the most important aspect of the question is the improvement of the quality of teachers.

24. Non-provision of adequate land, initial equipment and other capital expenditure are amongst other serious handicaps. Most of the schools have no land while others have an insufficient amount of it. Land, however, is necessary to develop agriculture-centred basic schools and to introduce kitchen gardening in other schools. The report of the Ministry of Education on the productive aspect of basic education, referred to earlier, estimates that the total amount required for basic schools, for all. the children of the age-group 6-14, and training schools, for training the necessary number of teachers for them, will be 31,46,460 acres which is only o'99 per cent of the total cultivated area in India. Difficulties of procuring land have to be faced at the local level. We would suggest the following measures to solve them :—

  1. Basic schools should be opened, or existing primary schools converted into basic schools, preferably in those places where the local inhabitants are prepared to donate at least five acres of land and the local community, or the State, provides initial equipment and other capital expenditure. The experience of Bihar, where basic education has been given a comparatively fair trial over some period, proves that gifts of land for basic schools can be easily secured. The social education programmes of the State Governments can prepare ground for such donations,
  2. Wherever Government land is available or where Government come into possession of land, such as by the abolition of Zamindari estates, basic institutions should have a prior claim in the surplus land.
  3. All Government demonstration farms should be used for training the staff of basic institutions.
  4. Wherever consolidation of holdings is undertaken, the needs of the local school for land should be taken into consideration in determining the extent of land tu be reserved for the common needs of the village.
  5. Government should simplify procedure for the transfer of land and provide the schools with necessary facilities and co-operation of the agricultural department for improving the land offered.
  6. Where land is not obtainable under any condition it may be rented.
  7. Collective labour under the supervision of teachers, as has been tried in the basic school at Vedchhi*, for example, may also provide a way out of the difficulty of procuring land.

Requisitioning of land should not be resorted to, except under very exceptional circumstances, as it creates strained relations between the school and those who are dispossessed in the surrounding area.

25. It has, however, to be recognised that very little experience has been gained about the problem of agriculture-centred basic schools. It is very necessary, therefore, to take up forthwith a few agriculture-centred schools as an object of special study by qualified people so that they can provide guidance for the rest.

26. The disposal of the products of basic schools is not properly attended to. It is too often forgotten that indifferent craft work is not only bad economics but also bad education. Arrangements should be made to carry out all the craft processes so that finished products are turned out from basic schools, either singly or a number of schools co-operating together. Quality and taste should be properly attended to and every attempt should be made to eliminate waste. Articles produced should be generally for consumption by the comm unity jo students, and teachers and the local community. If production is properly planned, and the community spirit is developed, there should be no unsold surplus. When, however, this adjustment is not perfect, the services of the normal machinery for the disposal of cottage industry products should be available to these schools.

27. In view of the central place which the personality of the teacher occupies in the basic system, the selection and training of the large number of basic teachers required is one of the most baffling problems in spreading basic education. The methods of selection should be so devised as to give due weight to personal traits in the teacher like the love of children and rural areas, self-help, initiative, resourcefulness, etc., which constitute really the key to his success as a basic teacher.

28. In view of the heavy cost that will be involved in training the large number of teachers required, it is highly important to develop the productive capacity of training schools to the fullest extent possible, consistent with educational interests. That will also provide pupil-teachers valuable lessons in self-help and resourcefulness. In view of the results obtained by some of the basic schools there are good prospects of achieving a fair amount of success in this regard in basic training schools and colleges.

29. The training of a large number of teachers, required within a reasonably short period of time, is a colossal task, which will need the closest co-operation of the Central Government, the State Governments and non-official bodies. Besides the services of basic education experts, the programme will require the services of allied departments like agriculture, animal husbandry, co-operation, etc., whose fullest co-operation should, therefore, be ensured.

30. The training programmes should be split up into two parts, both proceeding side by side : one concentrating on quality, which can grow only slowly, and the other on those basic skills and knowledge like organised community living, craft work, etc., which can be imparted en masse in regional camps. The teachers trained by the latter method should continue to be trained on the job by guiding literature, by peripatetic teachers being posted in their midst for short periods, by holding short refresher courses, etc. To get the best out of the teachers, favourable atmosphere should be provided by giving a short course in basic education to all the officers of the department, so that they can guide the teachers with sympathy and understanding.

31. Buildings should be of the simplest possible type and, as far as possible, built out of local material and the free labour of the people. Government should help with technical advice for which the public works departments should experiment with cheap designs which can be constructed with locally available material. The response of the public in the matter of school buildings in many places shows what can be done by public - co-operation. The procedure of giving building grants should, however, be 30 simplified that grants, which are meant to stimulate public effort, are not so long delayed as to damp it.

32. The precise nature of the administrative machinery will be determined by each State according to the prevailing conditions. In view of the past experience as well as the nature of basic education, however, we would recommend certain general considerations which, we feel, should be kept in view. Basic education being a new experiment, it is essential in the initial stages to create a strong nucleus by having a separate unit for it within the education department. Secondly, basic education should have the co-operation of all departments whose work is vitally related to basic institutions. The extent of the responsibility of each department in this regard should be carefully worked out. Attempt should be made to locate the headquarters, temporary or permanent, of the officers of the various departments at basic institutions, wherever possible. Thirdly, basic education, being a programme of community action, non-officials should be associated at different levels and local committees should have the largest powers possible, consistent with efficiency and broad uniformity of policy.

33. Primary education—As regards the question of ordinary primary education, we feel that, in view of the poor return from it, the tendency to open new primary schools should not be encouraged and, as far as possible, resources should be concentrated on basic education and the improvement and remodelling of existing primary schools on basic lines, as far as that can be done with the personnel available. Even where new primary schools have to be opened for any special reasons, the curricular content should generally be the same as for basic schools and the earliest opportunity should thereafter be taken to convert these schools into full-fledged basic schools. As an immediate step, craft teachers should be trained on a large scale and craft introduced in as many schools as possible. The conversion programme, as well as the programme of opening new basic schools, should be so conducted that other primary schools in the vicinity are also brought near the basic pattern. This is-necessary not only to eliminate unhealthy rivalry between basic and ordinary primary schools but also to promote the development of a uniform system of education. It should, moreover, be preceded by the education of the public in regard to the value of basic education. The question of improving pay-scales and conditions of service of teachers will be dealt with in a subsequent section. The question of improving of buildings of ordinary primary schools has to be dealt with in the same way as indicated in. para. 31.

34. Although State resources should be concentrated largely on basic education the people should be encouraged to provide themselves with whatever education they can with the co-operation of voluntary agencies. Students can make a substantial contribution if their efforts are properly mobilised. Properly directed children's clubs should also be formed to impart some of the essentials of education to children for whom regular school education cannot be provided.


35. The Government of India has set up a Commission to examine the entire question of secondary education. We have, therefore, confined our remarks only to a few of the more important and wider considerations which should be kept in mind in formulating its pattern.


36. In the first place, secondary education must be closely related to the psychological needs of the adolescents for whom it is being designed. Secondly, it should be vitally related to the existing socio-economic situation, to the directive principles of State policy laid down in the Constitution and the approved schemes for social and economic-reconstruction. In order to equip the youth adequately for the needs of the existing socio-economic situation, it is necessary to give secondary education a vocational bias. At present this education is mainly academic and does not provide sufficient scope for adolescents with varying aptitudes especially those with a marked practical bent of mind. Thirdly, secondary education should grow from the education that is being given at the primary stage, i, e. it should be closely integrated with the basic education and its essential underlying principles. There should be no wide variation in the method of teaching and curriculum of the basic and the secondary school. The planning of the secondary education must also have in view the creation of leadership in the intermediate level, because for the majority of students, formal education comes to an end at this stage. To this end, suitable types of multilateral or unilateral schools offering parallel courses should be provided and the personnel for vocational guidance, should be trained. The standards to be attained should be high enough, on the one. hand to make the majority of students whose education ends at the secondary stage to be efficient workers and, on the other, to enable the minority who proceed to higher education to profit from the instructions they receive at these institutions. In view of the role it has to play between the basic and the higher stage, the planning of secondary education requires considerable care and attention.


37. Regarding finance, capital expenditure should be provided partly by the State and partly by the local people. In the rural areas, the local people should help by providing land, free labour in the construction of buildings, etc. Simple living, based on self-help, should considerably reduce living expenditure in hostels. Economic activities like agriculture, cottage industries, small-scale industries, etc., should be encouraged—even from the wider educational point of view—and thereby help to recover at least a part of the recurring expenditure.


38. One problem which has to Be immediately tackled is the relationship of post-basic and secondary schools. We feel that the same credit should be given to the products of the two types for equal years of schooling for purposes of inter-school transfers and going in for higher education. For purposes of employment and adjudging capacity for social service, however, the attainments of the different pupils should provide the data for assessing their comparative worth. Maintenance of detailed index cards should considerably help in this direction.


39. The Ministry of Education appointed the University Education Commission, which reported in 1949, to examine the entire question of university education. The Commission has suggested comprehensive and far-reaching reforms. We have received valuable help from the Commission's report in framing our recommendations in the light of our resources and the over-all needs of the country.

40. The problem of the re-organisation of university education is really three-fold :the reform of the existing system to enable it ro yield the best results it is capable of yielding, the building up of a new system (or systems) more suited to our national needs and the working out of the relationship of the various systems, while they exist side by side. In spite of their grave defects, the existing universities are the only repositories we have of the tradition of organised knowledge and the course of wisdom is to improve their working while we attempt to build a system or systems better suited to our needs.


41. Finance—The immediate difficulty that has to be faced in the reform of university education is that of finance. The financial position of most of the universities has worsened in recent years on account of the large increase in expenditure. A very large number of universities are running on deficit budgets and hardly any university has the funds for necessary development.

42. The sources of income other than grants-in-aid from Governments are drying up or like fees have already almost reached their limit. The financial burden of any improvement, therefore, that might be undertaken has to be borne mainly by the State.

43. While means should be found to strengthen the financial position of the universities to the extent that our resources allow, it is necessary to make the best use of available resources, for which we would recommend the following measures :—

  1. A University Grants Commission after the pattern suggested by the University Education Commission should be set up. It should be one of its functions tC-see that the tendency to open new universities, without adequate finances, is resisted. Universities should not recognise new colleges until they are sure of their financial stability.
  2. Economies should be effected and more satisfactory results obtained by the co-ordination of post-graduate work in the various universities, thereby preventing unnecessary duplication. This should also be the responsibility of the University Grants Commission when it is set up.
  3. There is some room for economy in the running of universities, as revealed by the Report of the Reviewing Committee, appointed by the Government of India to examine the problems and difficulties facing the three Central universities and the ways and means by which Government can help them. The recommendations of the Committee should receive the careful consideration of all universities.
  4. Residential life in hostels should be based on the maximum of self-help and the ideals of utmost simplicity should be inculcated among university students.

44. Overcrowding in colleges—Another very important problem is the serious overcrowding in most of the colleges, which makes individual attention, so necessary at this stage, simply impossible. We must develop and apply selective tests on a large scale so that nobody is allowed to go up for higher education who is not fit to profit by it. But, in order to be able to enforce this selection, opportunities should be provided to the large majority of students to find gainful employment by making pre-university education purposeful and complete in itself.

45. The above measures will, however, take time to produce any appreciable results. Immediate relief can be had by providing facilities for private study, through correspondence courses and radio lectures organised as far as possible by the various universities, and allowing students to take the various examinations privately. This will have the additional advantage of giving an opportunity for progress to those who have to enter life early.

46. The present practice under which a degree is the minimum qualification for a large number of even routine and clerical posts must change. -Recruitment to the services should be by competitive tests, calculated to assess both aptitude and acquired knowledge, and in most cases, the non-possession of a degree should be no bar to taking the competitive examination. This will open out new avenues of progress for those who enter life early but who equip themselves subsequently through other methods. In certain services it may be advisable not to pitch the standards of academic qualifications high so that youngmen with the requisite aptitudes can be selected at an early age, say, at the end of the secondary stage, and whatever further training they require is given to them in institutions maintained by the departments themselves. Both these measures should make it unnecessary for many students to crowd colleges merely to get a degree for securing employment.

47. Improving standards of teaching—The most important factor responsible for the existing low standards of teaching is the poor scales of pay and unsatisfactory conditions of service of the staff employed. The question is discussed in paragraphs 120 and 121. In addition, the following measures are recommended for improving standards of teaching :—

  1. Proper steps must be devised to remedy the existing state of affairs in universities where, in too many cases, power and position depend not on the quality of work a person puts in but on his capacity to manage votes in the various university elections.
  2. The number of working days should be increased to at least 180, exclusive of examination days. The continuity of studies is too frequently broken by casual holidays. A continuous period of study, followed by a continuous period of holidays, is desirable. That would give students the opportunity to engage in part-time work if they so desired and enable college authorities to provide other activities for students such as study tours, work camps, etc.
  3. The system of inviting guest speakers on an honorarium may make the services of some good teachers available without much additional cost, especially in big towns and cities.
  4. In order to develop a more balanced outlook and presonality and habits of co-operation and self-help, students should engage themselves in such activities as community cleaning, making and repair of roads within the college compound, gardening, visits to the country-side and slum areas, etc. These activities will have the additional advantage of reducing the cost of maintaining a college.
  5. Another reform which is very urgently needed and should be considered in all its bearings is the raising of the age-limit of admission to universities.
  6. An atmosphere of discussion and free thinking should be encouraged through seminars, teachers' and students' camps, etc.
  7. Steps should also be taken to correct the one-sidedness of present university education so that arts students have basic scientific knowledge and science students the essential knowledge of the humanities.

48. Control of universities—The control of universities leaves much to be desired. Apart from the evils of the teacher-politician, who has come up as a result of the introduction of democratic control in universities, they are subjected to unhealthy outside influences which nullifies their autonomy. Except the three institutions directly administered by the Central Government, universities are a State subject, and consequently the all-India aspects are apt to be neglected. There is great disparity in the quality of administration in different universities. The functions of the University Grants Commission should, therefore, also include the ensuring of minimum standards of teaching and internal administration in the various universities and the securing of proper attention for the national aspects of university education.


49. The urgent necessity of providing higher education to the rural areas is obvious. To meet this need, the University Education Commission has recommended a new pattern under the name of rural university. The Central Government should help to establish, during the period of the Plan, at least one such university, wherever the earlier stages of basic education, out of which it has to grow, have been worked out. Apart from serving the villages, the experience gained in the working of rural universities is likely to be useful in affecting certain necessary reforms in our existing universities, thereby enabling them to serve the national needs more effectively.


50. The rural universities that may be set up will have to pass through a period of experimentation, during which it is essential that they should have free scope for development. In order not to place the products of these institutions at a disadvantage, the degree of the rural universities should have as much validity in the matter of public appointments as those of older universities.


51. The concept of adult education, which was mostly confined to literacy, was found to be too narrow to be able to meet the various needs of the adults. It was, therefore, widened to include, in addition to literacy, the health, recreation and home life of the adults, their economic life and citizenship training ; and to denote this new concept the term 'social education' was coined. Social education implies an all-comprehensive programme of community uolift through community action. External aid mav be there but only to stimulate, and not to replace, community effort. The importance of such a programme is obvious. It should not only make our limited resources much more effective, but also build up a self-reliant nation. In a country, where nearly 80 per cent of the population are illiterate, democracy will not take root until a progressive programme of primary education trains up a generation fit to undertake its responsibilities. Even the programme of primary education is considerably handicapped without a corresponding programme of the education of adults.


52. The work in the field of social education has been mostly confined to literacy. As a result of the work in recent years^especially during 1937-39 and since 1949-50, the literacy percentage increased from 8"3 in 1931 to iy'2* per cent in 1951. Most of the post-literacy work is done through libraries though, due to the dearth of suitable literature, the library movement has not made much headway in the villages. Recently the importance of recreational and cultural activities in programmes of social education has been increasingly recognised. Our cultural agencies like dance, drama, puppet show, fairs and festivals, bhajan, kirtan, etc., have been used but. without any systematic attempt being made to gauge, develop and fully exploit ,|lieir' potentialities for mass education. Fairs and festivals had a meaning in olden times. They: have, however, to be reinterpreted and modified to fit into the modern context and beqgme live and full of meaning to the people today. 'Modern means of mass communication Bkethe film and the radio have attracted much greater attention but, on account of their heavy cost, their use has been very much limited. Attempts have also been made in;a few institutions to improve the economic condition of the villagers by teaching them improved crafts and agriculture. Very good all-round social education work has been done by some of the basic institutions. Co-operatives" have also been developed as an agency of social education.


53. The approach to the problem has to be determined in the light of our resources and the magnitude of the task ahead. The total expenditure on social education in 1950-51 was Rs. 83-45 lakhs. The average annual expenditure visualized in the Plan is Rs. 3-02 crores. We would, however, require an average annual expenditure of Rs. 27! crores for the next ten years to make everybody literate and give him in addition, a veneer of social education in the larger sense of the term. .The situation, therefore, calls for a most carefully planned approach. At the national level, priorities in the'programme of social education should be determined by the overall national priorities, thereby not only winning for it the enthusiasm and support of the country at large but also making- it directly productive, as it would enable the human factor to respond fully to the .national plans of development. Organization of co-operatives, agencies of village development, co-operative farming, agricultural extension work, etc., are priority tasks in the Plan. We would, therefore, recommend that social education should be based on them. That is to say, in handling these activities utmost attention should be paid to inculcating In the adults right individual and collective habits, and the knowledge of various subjects should be correlated to every step involved in these activities, thereby broadening the horizon of the adults and enabling them to understand and effectively participate in the wider national life. For that it would be necessary to give re-orientation courses to the personnel engaged in these departments and to prepare literature to guide them in this work.

54. Within the broad framework of national priorities the actual programmes in a locality should be determined by local needs. Planning at the local level is equally essential if the danger of frittering away our meagre resources in a number of unco-ordinated activities is to be avoided. The principles which should govern our approach in this regard may be stated as follows. Our resources should be used in the first instance, as far as possible, for that programme which not only meets some immediately felt need of the local community, in whose midst the programme is conducted, but also builds up resources for developing the programme with the expanding awareness of the community of its own needs. That is the only way by which, with our limited resources, we can make any impression on the problem. Secondly, the social education approach must permeate all programmes of State aid to the people. That is to say that before any programme of State aid is launched the people should be so educated in regard to it that their instinct to help themselves is fully aroused and they are anxious to receive the programme and do their utmost in the execution of it. Thirdly, there should be the closest integration of the various activities conducted in a locality so that the forces of friendship and goodwill released by one activity, immediately recognised by the villagers as good or pleasant, can be utilised for winning their co-operation for activities requiring more strenuous effort or the usefulness of which is not so immediately apparent to them. Fourthly, it should be our endeavour to increase the effectiveness of private agencies doing social education work in an area by giving them proper help.


55. Besides the social education work which various agencies entrusted primarily with other work—like agriculture, animal husbandry, etc.—may carry on in close connection with their work, the programme of social education will fall into two parts. One should consist of whatever items any agency wants to or is capable of taking up out of the vast field of social education. Such agencies should be encouraged and helped, depending upon the usefulness of the work performed and the extent to which State resources can be diverted for the purpose. The other part should consist of a planned programme outlined below which should" be undertaken wherever a properly trained worker is available. This is calculated to achieve maximum results. State resources should naturally be concentrated more on the latter part of the programme and in training workers for it. - This programme will differ in rural and urban areas, in view of the different conditions prevailing in each.

56. In rural areas the point at which the social education programme in a locality can begin will of course depend on the conditions prevailing in the given area. Attempt should, however, be made at the earliest opportunity to organise an economic activity on co-operative basis. The precise nature of the activity and the degree and nature of co-operation will of course vary according to local needs and the degree of maturity of the local people. The underlying object is that not only will it provide education to the participants by organising community efforts and pooling their resources but it will a o by the more effective use of local resources, ensure economic gain, which will generate sustained interest and create confidence. The co-operative activity will be the rallying point for the community and mark the beginning of the community centre, the nucleus of which will be provided by the trained community organiser. Where a co-operative society already exists, the. task of the worker will be to further improve it and transform it into an agency of social education. Similarly, programmes of health education and health services should also be organised on co-operative lines. The test of the proper time for any programme is that the community is psychologically prepared so that it can orgainse it with its own resources.

57. The importance of providing healthy recreation cannot be too strongly stressed. In organising recreational programmes special attention should be given to the revival and proper utilisation of our cultural agencies. Occasions provided by fairs and festivals should be utilised for purposes of education, recreation and community organisation. Literature should be prepared explaining the significance of the various fairs and festivals and their relevance today as well as how their .full educational potentialities can be developed and made use of. The State should encourage writers to produce plays containing constructive ideas for such occasions. Film shows by mobile vans may also be provided to the extent that resources permit. It should be remembered, however, that unless integrated with the programme of development going on in an area their use is strictly limited. Certain films which will be relevant to conditions all over India, such as those dealing with common diseases and those calculated to inculcate right individual and collective habits, should be prepared by the Central Government and lent out to the various States. Well-regulated radio broadcasts should also be increasingly used for recreation and instruction.

58. In organising literacy and post-literacy work the aim should be to put it on a self-financing basis, as far as possible, by normally starting it only when the ground has been prepared by some more obviously useful activity like the economic activity, mentioned earlier, and the interest in knowledge has been sufficiently stimulated. A news-sheet, locally produced, and carrying suggestions for improving . their lot—suggestions which they can immediately put into practice and in which they have developed faith as a result of the work in the first stage—should find ready customers among the villagers. At a later stage the State can help with libraries to the extent that its resources allow.

59. If we have provided the above four programmes, correlating relevant knowledge at every step, we will not only have met the primary needs of the masses but also taught them through living, most of the things that are required for the citizen of a modern democratic State. There is, however, no end to-activities that naghj, be included in a programme of social education and, as the capacity of the masses to ."feelp themselves increases, more and more activities can be added. The above intensive ' programme should be spread in the surrounding villages through local leaders thrown up as a result of the working of small groups in youth clubsy women's clubs, children's clubs,*:farmets' elubs, etc., which it should be the aim of the community organiser to set.inp. Short and intensive camps should be organised for these leaders where the working of the social education programme is explained to them. Thereafter continual guidance is given to them from his headquarters by the community organiser.

60. In the case of urban areas, there are so many groups that the problems will have to be studied in relation to each group. The problem of healthy and cheap recreation is also more acute in the towns than in the villages. The overall considerations 'will, however, be the same as in the rural areas. The programmes must begin with felt needs and must have the capacity to grow by the resources of the local community. But in view of the congestion in towns, the high price of land and buildings and the business of the townsman the State or philanthropic organisations may have to provide a building for each community centre, though even here the attempt should be to mobilise as much of the local effort as possible for the purpose. As in the villages so in the towns, the State or other organisations that may be doing the work of social education should provide a worker, highly trained in community organisation and in the mobilisation of its resources. In urban areas, especially in industrial areas, special attention should be paid to improving the skill of the workers.


61. The selection and training of workers are perhaps the most important tasks. Two types of social education workers will be required : those who have specialised in community organisation, and others who, with proper reorientation of outlook, can work under their guidance. In the case of the former especially, as the qualities of personality—initiative, resourcefulness, leadership, spirit of sacrifice and service and mastery of cheap, simple and intelligent living—are more important than mere academic qualifications, a new system of selection will have to be evolved. The training of community organisers should be very thorough and should consist of improved methods of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, one or two of the most important cottage industries of the area concerned, principles and organisation of co-operatives, organisation of simple recreational programmes, organisation of community centres, etc., and above all the handling of these activities in such a way as to lead to the development of the minds of men most effectively. Training in literacy work should also be given.. The training of community organisers should be arranged in conjunction with a training centre for basic teachers, a post-basic school or an agricultural school or college, which should preferably be at an extension headquarters. The greatest stress should be laid on the development of the maximum possible self-help and self-support, consistent with other interests, as these workers have primarily to infuse that spirit among the people.

62. The other category of social education workers will include school teachers, village level workers, various Government officers working in the locality concerned and workers of private agencies" Regarding pupil-teachers,.training in social education work should be compulsory in all training colleges. The State should provide special grants for the departments of social education in training colleges for some years to come to give an impetus to the work. Short and intensive training in social education work should be organised in camps for teachers already on the job. The training of village level workers should also include initiation into the human side of their work : mass psychology, mass approach, community organisation, etc. Training facilities should also be offered for workers of private agencies. Higher officers should be given a reorientation course, so that they develop an integrated outlook, which will not only enable them to guide the worker with sympathy and understanding but also make for better inter-departmental co-operation, upon which the success of the rural development programme in an area depends.


63. Teachers' training colleges should take up research in methods of imparting literacy. Work in the experimental centres of social education, which should be associated in the case of rural areas with the group of model basic institutions mentioned earlier, should provide sufficient material for literature suitable for adults. There is also considerable room here for inter-departmental co-operation and for co-operation between the States sharing a common linguistic area. The Centre should provide model guide books for workers and prepare pamphlets on certain standard subjects like health, democratic citizenship, co-operatives, etc.


64. The present stage of social education in the country is essentially experimental and needs Central guidance. The work should be co-ordinated with similar work in basic education and a common committee of experts should advise the Centre in the matter of initiating and aiding financially experimental work in both these fields in the States, a-nd guide it, assess the results and make them available to other States. A common national platform, where the various agencies can meet at intervals for mutual discussion—so necessary for evolving a common outlook and securing co-ordination of different agencies—is already provided by the Indian Adult Education Association.

65. The director of social education in a State should be a man highly trained in community organisation and should be able to advise and help the State in the matter of public participation in its various development programmes. He should have a body representing important non-official agencies to advise him._

66. At the field level it is mostly a task of re-organising and co-ordinating existing agencies rather than of creating new ones. The problem is different in rural and urban areas. In rural areas the following measures should be taken :—

  1. Educational institutions should become examples of self-help, democratic community living, co-operative labour and intelligent handling of economic activity. Education should centre round agriculture and cottage industries and educational institutions should be well equipped with agricultural farms, craft work-shops, etc. Educational institutions would thereby become excellent centres for spreading ideas for improving our social and economic life. Basic schools, which are already conceived on the above lines, have special significance in this regard. All facilities should, therefore, be provided at the basic training centres so that the teachers are trained as first class social education workers.
  2. The village level worker, wherever provided, should also be stationed in a school, as far as possible. Under his guidance even an ordinary school may begin to make some contribution, which will also prepare it for ultimate conversion into a basic school.
  3. Besides the above agencies the State should provide, wherever possible, community organisers, say one for 50 villages, to make use of, help, guide arid co-ordinate the activities of all agencies working in their respective spheres. These also should be attached to educational institutions.
  4. The role of private agencies has already been discussed.

67. In urban areas quite a large number of agencies exist and the key problem is to co-ordinate their activities for a comprehensive programme of social education. For this purpose city or town social education councils should be instituted, where they do not exist already, each consisting of the representatives of the various agencies operating in the town concerned. This Council should distribute items of social education work among the various agencies according to their capacity and willingness to undertake it. Social education in industrial areas in towns has special importance in view of the dull and drab conditions of life prevailing in urban areas. Here the employer and the labour unions should be able to co-operate.


68. The importance of professional education cannot be over-emphasised as it trains the personnel for the varied national tasks ahead as well as fits pupils for earning a living for themselves. In view of the under-developed state of the country, professions \ offering prospects of lucrative employment are limited. Even so, and despite the increasing attention which professional education has received in the last few years, the available facilities on the whole fall far short of the demand by students. Some of the important lines of professional education are dealt with below.


69. Assessment of the existing situation—Engineering and technological education has been receiving an increasing amount of attention during the last five years. The development, however, has not been uniform at all levels. Facilities for post-graduate studies and research are very inadequate, while the progress in respect of the undergraduate courses has been quite rapid. There has also been considerable expansion in the provision of facilities for diploma or certificate courses for training supervisory personnel. The following figures indicate the quantum of development since 1947 in the provision of degree and diploma courses :—

Year Engineering Technology
Output Intake Output Intake
Degree Courses
1947 950 2,520 320 420
1950 1.652 3.297 795 1.156
1951 2.152 3.755 675 1.338
Diploma Courses
1947 1.150 3.150 290 500
1950 1.864 4.400 689. 1.212
l95l 1.923 4.965 885 1.523

Almost all the above development has taken place in the basic courses and specialised courses have not received due attention.

70. At the craftsman level, except in a few progressive States, adequate emphasis has not been placed on this highly important type of training and the existing facilities are very insufficient. Similarly the development that has taken place in the provision of facilities for the training of industrial workers, of technical teachers and instructors and of retrenched personnel for alternative employment is also not commensurate with the requirements of the country. Technical high schools, recommended by the Central Advisory Board of Education, have also not received sufficient attention.

71. It would thus appear that there has been extensive development in the provision of courses leading to degrees and diplomas. Until, therefore, the Technical Manpower Committee of the All-India Council for Technical Education has assessed the country's requirements, it would be advisable to consolidate the work in the existing institutions and not to embark upon new ventures, except m certain specialised fields mentioned later. This is all the more necessary in view of the fact that the recent large increase in numbers has not always been accompanied by corresponding expansion of physical facilities (buildings and equipment) and the training in at least some of the institutions leaves much to be desired. The improvement of institutions and re-orientation of training are, therefore, the needs of the hour rather than any expansion in numbers.

72. Besides the quantitative aspect, mentioned above, are the more fundamental questions such as the pattern of technical education, the apportionment of responsibility as between the various agencies concerned, the control of technical education, co-operation between industy and commerce on the one hand and technical institutions on the other, etc., that will have to be dealt with.

73. Pattern of technical education—The Joint Committee of the All-India Council for Technical Education and the Inter-University Board has made specific recommendations in regard to the pattern of education at different levels, both in engineering and technology, viz. :—

  1. that a Master's degree be given after a person has. obtained the first award in the subject (the first University degree or its equivalent) and has gone through disciplined training, which may involve a certain amount of research ;
  2. that the first degree in Engineering should be awarded on satisfactory completion of a four'years' course, following Intermediate Science, of which at least six months should have been spent in practical training , and
  3. that the first degree in Technology should be awarded either after a four years' course following Intermediate Science or a two years' course following Bachelor's degree in Science.

74. Except tor a few courses at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, there are hardly any facilities at the postgraduate level in engineering. On the technological side, there are wide disparities both in the nomenclature of awards and in the content of training leading to post-graduate awards. Similarly at the under-graduate level, there are considerable variations in the duration and content of training. The lead given, by the Joint Committee should be of great value in removing this chaos and we hope that the various universities will adopt the suggestions made by this expert body. We also hope that similar committees should be constituted to review from time to time the existing pattern in order to keep it adjusted to the changing requirements of the country and the institutions concerned will take advantage of the advice tendered by the appropriate expert bodies in the interest of efficiency and maintenance of standards,

75. One very important lacuna in the organisation of facilities for degree and diploma courses is the absence of adequate arrangements to enable young people entering industry to continue their education, concurrently with the discipline and experience of work, by part-time study during day time or in the evenings. Almost all development has taken place on routine lines and the time has come when due emphasis should be laid on practical aspects. We consider it important that appropriate steps should be taken to bring about the establishment of what are known in the United Kingdom as technical colleges., preferably by re orienting the activities of some of the existing institutions. Such colleges will adopt a less academic approach to scientific principles than that characteristic of colleges preparing students for university degrees, and will train persons who will be of great use in the industrial advancement of the country.

76. For the training of engineering supervisory personnel, we would commend the universal adoption of the National Certificate Courses in engineering framed by the All-India Council for Technical Education which have the special advantage of being 90 devised that they can be taken on a part-time basis as well,

77. At the craftsman level there is at present no co-ordination in the matter of training and testing of craftsmen. The Government of India have recently appointed the National Trades Certification Investigation Committee. We hope that when its report is published it will provide valuable guidance in this matter.

78. Most of the trade training institutions cater at present for the urban population. We consider that the establishment of rural training centres, each at the centre of a group of villages, will go a long way towards improving techniques and skills of the villagers. These workshops should be opened in conjunction with basic institutions wherever possible, thereby effecting economy in equipment and staff and further establish the basic institutions in the affections of the people.

79. There is an urgent need for establishing a large number of technical high schools. We note that the All-India Council for Technical Education has appointed a small committee to report on this question.

80. Apportionment of responsibility— The responsibility for technical education has to be borne by the Central and State Governments on the one hand and industry and commerce on the other, with whatever assistance they can get from the public. So far as the State and Central Governments are concerned the Constitution has defined their spheres. Within that broad directive, we feel that the responsibility for technical education should be apportioned as follows :—

Research, advanced work and postgraduate courses. Major responsibility should be that of the Central Government in view of the high expenditure involved and the need for proper co-ordination. The Central Government should, however, undertake this responsibility with such assistance as is available, from the State Governments, commerce and industry.
Under-graduate work Major responsibility should be that of the State Government concerned with such grants-in aid as may be made by tne Central Government for maintenance of proper standards and provision of new approved courses.
Diploma certificate courses for training supervisory personnel. The State Governments and the Central Government in the proportion agreed upon in each case
Courses in junior technical institutions, industrial schools, trade schools, etc. The Stare Governments with the assistance of industry.
Secondary education with technical bias The State Governments.
Training of industrial workers or apprentices under proper supervision. The Central and State Governments with the assistance of industry.

Training of technical teachers and instructors

The responsibility of the Central Government in this behalf will be in accordance with the responsibilities undertaken for die various levels of training for which teachers are being trained.

81. Co-ordination of technical education—At present, position is that the All-India Council for Technical Education advises Governments on the development of higher technical education. This body's activities, however, relate only to the promotion of training and research facilities in the variou? institutions. For the promotion of engineering research; the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research has recently set up an Engineering Research Board. It is clear that the activities of this Board will extend to engineering colleges as well and we have no doubt that suitable means will be devised to co-ordinate the work of the two bodies.

82. The Council for Technical Education proposes to have four Regional Committees, one each for the eastern, western, northern and southern regions of the country. The eastern and western Committees have already been set up and we hope that the other two will also come into being very soon. It is the function of these committees to advise the Central Government, the State Governments and other authorities on the various problems concerning the region connected with the provision of educational and training facilities in technical institutions and industry and commerce at all levels.

83. In the interest of balanced development of technical education, especially in view of its expensiveness, it is desirable that the^dvice of a body which can take a comprehensive and overall view should be at the disposal of the various authorities running technical institutions or those who open new ones. We would recommend that a healthy convention should be established that whenever a new project is intended tp be launched, or substantial development in existing institutions is contemplated, the views of the All-India Council for Technical Education are sought and accepted by the authorities concerned. This body with its Regional Committees, which would be in close touch with both technical institutions and industry and commerce, should be in an excellent position to render that service.

84. Co-operation between industry and commerce and technical institutions—The inevitable necessity of the closest co-operation between industry and commerce on the one hand and the institutions that train the personnel for them on the other is obvious, and every step should be taken to improve the position in this regard. Technical institutions and industry working together can develop courses at the post-graduate level in several ways. One of these is "company operated courses" for giving the new employees, in addition to works experience, some form of orientation training to acquaint them with their surroundings, the organisation of the companies, their purposes and policies and, above all, to show them the paths of opportunities that are available to them. The other is "college extension courses" for the technical employees ofindusty. Colleges located in industrial centres can meet a real need by offering out-of-hours courses for ambitious technical graduates. The third is "postgraduate college courses" for employees on leave. Indian industry can certainly accomplish the task of training top-grade scientists by returning to the universities and colleges a few men each year for independent study. Such men, returning to colleges in their mature years, should not undertake any specific courses of study, or work for any degrees, but should rather pursue their own research objectives, developed from their industrial experience, doing some teaching also if they feel so inclined. Industry could greatly expand opportunities for advanced study in the colleges by providing fellowships for its own employees, who could be given leave of absence to carry on such study.

85. The importance of keeping the teaching staff alert brings up another field for co-operative programmes. Best results can be obtained by industry convening conferences of professors and teachers. A similar result can be accomplished in part through lectures at the colleges by industrial leaders. A series of lectures by a number of men in different fields will probably be more effective than single isolated ones. The stimulation obtained from dynamic leaders in particular fields should be a significant experience.

86. It does not appear that industry is making full use of technical institutions for the solution of its multifarious problems, both analytical and experimental. While such problems should be studied in colleges and technical institutions, it is essential that close association is maintained between industry and such institutions, with frequent interchange between industrial engineers and faculty members, in order to achieve the most effective results.

87. To bring about the various forms of co-operation it is necessaty to bring together persons concerned with the provision of educational facilities on the one hand and industrialists and commercial magnates on the other. We consider it essential that the governing bodies of the various technical institutions should have adequate representation of industry on them and that the technical men working in industry should be given due representation on the standing advisory committees, constituted by the various institutions for the development of their departments. The presence of various interests in each region on the regional comirLtees of the All-India Council for Technical Education should assist in bringing about greater co-operation between industry and educational institutions.

88. Lines of development—Organisation of facilities for professional education cannot be strictly related to the existing opportunities for employment but should take into account the developments planned in the various other spheres of national activity which require technical personnel. It is also necessary to turn out youngmen with initiative and grit in excess of the numbers indicated by the normal employment position in order that new ideas may be developed and small-scale ventures might receive an impetus. Data in regard to the employment position in different professions would still be an important requisite for the planning of facilities for professional education and it should be a point of major policy in the Plan to establish machinery for gauging the employment position accurately. Technical institutions can also help a great, deal in the planning and organisation of facilities by maintaining proper records of their alumni and the work they do after leaving the institutions. Such records are useful in assessing the utility of the various courses provided in the institutions as well as for indicating the numbers for whom facilities are required to be organised.

89. Special attention should be given to the development of facilities for research and postgraduate work. To attract the right type of students it will be necessary to institute research scholarships of adequate value and in adequate numbers. Collaboration between universities and higher institutions on the one hand and the national laboratories and Central research institutions on the other would go a long way in promoting research. Integrated schemes to make full use of these institutions should be worked out. Existing institutions, having on their staff teachers of proved research ability, should also be encouraged by various means to develop their research sections in the particular fields.

90. The Central Government have established a higher technological institute at Kharag-pur (the Indian Institute of Technology) and the All-India Council for Technical Education has recommended that this Institute should concentrate on post-graduate courses, advanced work and research. As many of the'courses at the post-graduate level as possible should, therefore, be provided at this Institute. The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, should also be a good place, in our view, for the provision of such courses. Similarly other established institutions, which have attained high standards at the under-graduate level, should be assisted to develop post-graduate courses.

91. At the under-graduate level immediate steps have to be taken to provide courses in special subjects, such as technical training in printing, processing of woollen and silk fabrics, etc. Expansion of facilities in architecture and town planning is also immediately necessary and the State of Bombay, which is comparatively advanced in the provision of facilities in these subjects should offer training facilities to other States. Reorientation of courses in some of the existing institutions and improvement generally of the institutions should also be undertaken. In the plans submitted by the State Governments it is observed that most of the schemes relate to Government institutions. While industry and private philanthropists may be expected to help in the improvement of non-governmental institutions, the State Governments should not exclude such institutions completely from their plans. We suggest that the State Governments should, in consultation with the All-India Council for Technical Education, review the question of the continuance of the ill-equipped institutions started recently and, should the decision be to continue them, provision should be made both in the Central and the State Governments' plans to bring about the desired improvement. To enable the State Governments to bear this increased burden the Central Government may undertake partial responsibility also for institutions hitherto financed wholly by the State Governments.

92. For the training of supervisory personnel special emphasis should be laid on the reorientation of the activities of some of the existing institutions so as to train students for the National Certificate Courses of the All-India Council for Technical Education, mostly on part-time basis.

93. The greatest need for expansion of training facilities is at the level of artisans and craftsmen. Institutions run by the Ministry of Labour, trade schools, industrial schools, production-cum-training centres should be opened on an extensive scale, so that the skills of the largE: numbers of people, engaged in production or likely to be so engaged, are developed. The need for establishing rural training centres in villages has already been stressed. In towns, industry and technical institutions should co-operate to provide instruction for industrial employees. Training of varying standards will have to be organised for such persons.

94. Another important activity which should be organised on an extensive scale is the provision of apprenticeship training schemes in industry. Proper arrangements should be made for supervision of the training programmes in industry and for their co-ordination with instruction in technical institutions. The success of part-time courses depends mainly on the organisation of apprenticeship training schemes and properly co-ordinated programmes of this kind are likely to lead to increased production. We hope that the regional committees of the All-India Council for Technical Education will consider this task as of the greatest urgency and importance.

95. Only a few institutions have arrangements for refresher courses. Promotion of these courses, especially in areas where there is concentration of industries and other technical activities, should be encouraged. The regional committees of the All-India Council for Technical Education should investigate this problem in each region and organise, in collaboration with industrial and technical establishments on the one hand and educational institutions on the other, short-term refresher courses in various subjects, on a full-time or part-time basis, as may be convenient. As such courses will primarily benefit industry and other technical establishments, the financial liability should normally be borne by them though, with a view to giving encouragement. Government may share the responsibility to some cxi-c' • in the initial stages.

96. The only institute for training of technical teachers is the one established by the Ministry ot Labour at Koni Bilaspur. Here, instructors are trained for craftmanship training. Knowledge of teaching methods is as important for a icacher in a technical institution as elsewhere. Some provision for the training of teachers has been made in the Ministry's plan as a beginning in this direction.


97. The needs of commerce arc many. But though facilities exist, no comprehensive survey has been made of the state of commercial education in the co.-mtry and the standards of the various courses pri^-ided. The need for such a survey can be easily appreciated.

98. There is considerable room for co-ordination and standardization in commercial education outside the universities. Different courses and examinations are held by various bodies which include the State Governments and commercial institutions and result in wide variation in standards which not only impede development of commercial educ-adon but lead to confusion in the employing agencies about tlic utility of these courses. The All-India Council for Technical Education and its board of technical studies in commerce and business administration have prepared national diploma and cerutic.itc courses for the training of different categories of personnel required for commercial occupations. These courses, designed on a national basis and having in view the requirements of commerce and industry, go a long way towards achieving the much needed co-ordination and standardisation of training. A number of institutions are already affiliated to the All-India Council for these courses, and it is necessary now to have them accepted all over the country. We would suggest that the State Governments, who have their own institutions for commercial education or give grants-in-aid to similar private institutions, should introduce the national diploma and certificate courses. The All-India Council should periodically assess the standards followed by them in training and education.

99. A very important aspect of education for commerce which has attracted great attention of late, and has led to considerable development in the United Kingdom and the United States of America, is education in business management and industrial administration. The need for increasing production and raising the standard of living of the people by improving efficiency of manufacturing and distributing processes requires specially trained management personnel at all levels and in all fields. It is not enough to have only scientists and technologists but also scientists and technologists who can administer and organise, large scale production and distribution. The majority of men who possess technical qualifications are entrusted with managerial functions at a comparatively late stage of their career. The need for training such men is obvious. The observations made by the University Education Commission, the Percy Committee of the United Kingdom Sad the Joint Anglo-American Council for Productivity, all bring out prominently the importance of management studies and the need for facilities for such studies. The remarks of the Percy Committee in particular are fully applicble to the conditions which obtain in India :—

" The highly trained technician is often ignorant of the principles of industrial organisation and management'and he^often shows'no inclination to accept administrative responsibility. Admittedly, there is much that can be learnt in this field only from 'experience, but there is a body of knowledge, the awareness of which may greatly facilitate the process of learning. This body of knowledge should be made available both at the undergraduate and the post-graduate stages."

100. There is scope for organised education for management in this country and youngmen who reveal aptitude for managerial work can be better prepared by such education to take up responsible managerial positions in business. The task of detecting aptitude for managerial works and providing appropriate education and training 10 develop such aptitude into a profession can only be dealt with by such experts as now constitute the committee on industrial administration and business management appointed by the All-India Council for Technical Education. This committee has already prepared a plan for introducing specialised full-time courses on industrial administration and business management for the eastern region and is at present engaged in preparing a similar plan for the western region. It is important that the work of the committee is carried through with expedition and its plans and proposals for developing facilities for management studies on a regional basis are implemented.

101. Among the various professional courses law attracts, even now, perhaps the largest number of pupils in spite of the fact that conditions are by no means easy in that profession. This may be due to a desire to qualify for at ieast one profession however difficult the chances in it may be. Most of lecturers in law colleges are part-time and the attention they give to their work leaves much to be desired. The University Education Commission has analysed the question of legal education in detail.


102. Everyone realises the significance of the problem of women's education in the special circumstances of our country today and the need for adopting special measures for solving it. The general purpose and objective of women's education cannot, of course, be different from the purpose and objective of men's education. There are,_ however, vital differences in the way in which this purpose has to be realised.

103. The main point of difference to be stressed is that there are particular spheres of life in which women have a distinctive role and in which they can make a special contribution. It is now universally recognised that in the management of the household, in bringing up children, in the field of social service, in nursing and midwifery, in teaching, especially in elementary schools, in certain crafts and industries like knitting, embroidery, etc., and in the field of fine arts, women have, by instinct, a better aptitude. This does not, however, mean that women should, whatever be their individual aptitudes and ambitions, be confined to these few spheres. They must have the same opportunities as men for taking to all kinds of work and this presupposes that they get equal educational facilities so that their entry into the professions and public services is in no way prejudiced.

104. In a programme of women's education the needs of different age-groups have always to be kept in view. These groups are : girls of the school-going age, i.e., of the age-group 5-xi ; girls of the age-group 11-16 ; girls above this age who are married and have to look after their families ; and unmarried girls above this age who have to learn some vocation and earn their livelihood. There is also the problem of the social education of women in general.

105. The task of arousing the consciousness of parents to the need of educating their children, particularly their daughters, should form an integral part of a campaign of social education. Organisation of parents-teachers' associations would also go a long way towards the promotion and betterment of education in general and women's education in particular. Other organisations like the Bharat Sevak Samaj can undertake propaganda work in this connection.

106. Special facilities have to be provided for meeting the special needs of girls above the age of eleven who, owing to social and economic conditions, are not free to remain in schools even if they want to do so. Methods should be found whereby such girls are given special facilities-for prosecuting studies beyond the primary stage at home and are allowed to sit for the secondary school leaving certificate examination privately. This is one agency through which girls may be encouraged to pursue secondary education.

107. Another agency also may be thought of. There are many voluntary organisations which hold their own examinations and issue certificates and diplomas to those who are successful. Free scope should be given for such voluntary effort and Government may, wherever possible and necessary, recognise these diplomas and certificates and aid all approved voluntary organizations. We would like to emphasise the point that in the period of transition through which the country is passing in regard to education there should be the fullest scope for experimentation.

108. There are girl students who are unable, after the completion of the secondary course, to proceed to universities. All the same, they are interested in higher studies and can in their leisure moments pursue such studies and pass the normal university examinations. There are some universities which admit such private candidates for their examinations and we recommend this practice for adoption by others. Part-time schools and colleges, extension lectures, etc., are at present a common feature of educational organisations in most countries in the world and should also be organised in this country. The courses should be based on a harmonious combination of theory and practice.

109. The problem of women's education in India is above all the problem of the education of grown-up women. Generally, women cannot always be educated in the same continuous fashion as men. Unlike boys, girls are forced to suspend their studies in the irearly teens due to a variety of reasons and take up wider responsibilities of the home. Arrangements should, therefore, be made to facilitate resumption of studies by women at a time when they have leisure. While it is found necessary even in the most advanced countries of Europe and America to organise education for the middle-aged woman, it needs no argument to stress the importance of providing similar facilities in a country like ours. Social service organisations have to take up the cause of their education and conduct short-term courses for general education as well as for training in crafts.

110. As regards the content of women's education the point that has to be stressed is that, apart from the requirements of the different courses which they may take up, women should leam everything which will enable them to discharge those functions which, as has been observed in the introductory paragraphs, legitimately belong to their special sphere of life. The large majority of them will become mothers and have to bring up their children and manage their household in an economical and efficient manner.

111. There is also another aspect of the content of women's education for which special provision has to be made. It is one of the objectives of planning for women's education that at the secondary and even at the "university stage it should have a vocational or occupational basis, as far as possible, so that those who complete such stage may be in a position, if necessary, to immediately take up some vocation or the other. The idea of the bifurcation of secondary education is now widely accepted and what is stressed here is to give it extensive application especially in the case of girls. Here, there should be co-ordination between planning for women's education and. planning for cottage industries. Giving a vocational bias to women's education is also of additional value in so far as their energies will be directed to productive channels and should appreciably add to the national income of the country.

112. In the organisation of women's education the Girl Guide Movement has an important part to play. The movement at the present day is restricted to urban centres and even there its activities are not widespread. They do not reach all the girls in the locality but are restricted only to those who attend regular schools. What is needed is that the movement should bring into its fold all the girls in the urban areas and it should extend the scope, of its operation into rural areas also. As an agency of social education it is potentially strong and any planning for women's education must make the fullest use of it.

113. There are also the beginnings of women's welfare movement in the country. In this connection, the step taken by the Madras Government in constituting a separate women's welfare department, administering a comprehensive programme, both in rural and urban areas, with the help of trained social workers and a large number of voluntary workers, is significant. The results achieved by the department are worthy of emulation by other State Governments. The Government of Uttar Pradesh, it is understood, has already followed suit. The Ministry of Rehabilitation at the Centre and some of the Departments of rehabilitation at the State level have also set up special divisions to deal with the problems of displaced women. The fullest use should be made of these departments for spreading education among women.


Labour and social service by students

114. Institution of compulsory social and labour service for students is being urged, both as a measure of educational reform and as a means of improving the quality of manpower. The idea briefly is that students of both sexes, between tlie ages of 18 and 22, except when exempted on medical grounds, should be called upon to devote a period of about a year to disciplined national service at such place and time, and in such manner, as the State may decide. The economic value of the product of such labour is not the chief cons ration although the endeavour should be to increase constantly the efficiency of the work done so that it can become a source of real satisfaction, create a pride of achievement, and at the same time, make the scheme as nearly self-sufficient as possible. The primary aim of the period of training is, howevre, the building up of students as workers and disciplined citizens. The vast place which manual work occupies in the life of a nation should be reflected in the activities of every citizen and the dignity of manual labour should be realised in practice. These lessons ar ebest inculcated in the formative years of one's life as a student. A certain amount of manual work, as a part of the daily routine, and a short-term stay in a labour camp once a year, should be features of the curriculum throughout the-educational period. At some stage during this period, for a considerable length of time, manual activity should figure as the major item in the day's-routine of the student. This, it is believed, should not be less than six months but may extend to a year.

115: This service can take a variety of forms. It will develop significance in'proportion to its relation to the real needs of the community. Community projects, irrigation works, buildings of public utility, roads, slum improvement, sanitation, etc., are among the avenues which are immediately open. Association of students with such works will bring them an intellectual and emotional awareness of the various tasks of national reconstruction, which are in progress.

116. The intention is that every student before he enters life goes through the period of training. For those who enter the universities, the end of the intermediate course would be the most suitable stage for participation in the scheme It will cover a fairly large group and will operate at a time when the pressure of economic considerations is not as great as at later stages. In the absence, however, of sufficient experience of handling large bodies of students with economy and efficiency, the cost of inu'oducing this scheme at this stage would be prohibitive. It is desirable, therefore, to begin with a small manageable group, for a period of three to six months , and as experience is gained and more funds become available, to shift the incidence of the scheme to an earlier stage and extend the period of its operation.

117. Doubts have been raised regarding the desirability of introducing compulsion in this matter. They relate only to short-term difficulties and do not seriously touch any question of principle. A period of preparation and experimentation will be needed before the service can be put on a compulsory footing. Meanwhile, the scheme should be introduced on a voluntary basis with certain inducements. Those who go through such a course will naturally be more fitted for positions of responsibility. Organisers of this scheme should be as far as possible college professors for whose training adequate arrangements should be made. In this task, help should be sought of organisations like the Hindustan Scouts and Guides, Hindustani Talimi Sangh, colleges of physical education, the Bharat Sevak Samaj and other social service organisations. A provision of rupees one crore has been made in the Plan for implementing the scheme.

Teachers' salaries and conditions of service

118. One of the chief causes of the poor standards in the educational institutions is the low scales of salaries paid to teachers and the highly unsatisfactory conditions of their service. The Central Government have taken steps to improve them in the centrally administered areas and recently some States have also taken similar steps but on the whole conditions remain very unsatisfactory. We are convinced that no improvement in the existing system will be possible without improving the conditions of service of teachers and putting their remuneration on a fair basis of comparison with other services. We strongly recommend that every State Government should examine the position of teachers' salaries and, within the limits of their resources, endeavour o raise the scales of pay.

119. In view, however, of the large numbers involved and the strained resources of the State the relief that might be expected from this measure is not likely to be sufficient and it will have to be otherwise supplemented. Whenever possible additional facilities in the form of free accommodation, fee concessions for their children's education, etc., should be provided. In village schools attempt should be made to provide every teacher with a plot of land where he and his family can grow their own vegetables. While all measures should be taken to prevent the evil of private tuitions, avenues of useful educational work should be provided by which teachers can supplement their income and at the same time help the cause of educational improvement and expansion in their leisure hours. They could, for instance, be gifen the chance of participating -in activities like conducting refresher courses of teachers of lower classes during vacation, organising extension services in universities, running evening classes for working children, undertaking social education work, etc., and paid extra allowance for the same. Besides adding to their income, participation in these activities should, in' many cases, help to enrich the personality of the teacher concerned and improve his knowledge.

Physical and mental health

120. Proper provision should be made in educational institutions for maintaining the physical and mental health of students. Health education should form a compulsory part ,of the curriculum from the earliest stage to the end of the university career. Educational institutions should also be responsible for spreading health education in the community around. Norms of physical fitness— comprehending agility, strength and endurance— should be laid down for boys and girls at every stage of education. These norms should be worked out by experts and applied to different groups of people with due regard to variations in economic, climatic and other conditions. The course of the physical exercises calculated to help students to attain these norms should, however, be regulated by medical advice in each case. The attainment of these norms should be certified by a diploma which should be given some consideration in matters of public appointments and the like.

121. We would also recommend to the State Governments and other authorities the following measures in this connection :

(1) A National College of Physical Education for training the higher personnel for physical education and community recreation and leadership should, be set up. The existing Central Institution for Physical Education in Bombay may be upgraded for the purpose.

(2) Suitable courses of physical education should be prepared and introduced in schools and colleges. These should provide'for games and sports as well as suitable Yogic exercises.

(3) Adequate facilities for training of physical instructors should be provided, i" teachers' training institutions physical education should be an essenthi subject Shoif-term courses in physical education should also be organised for teachers.

(4) Research in physical education should be conducted, especially in regard to the following problems :

  1. the relative value of different sports,games and exercises from physiological, social and educational points of view ;
  2. the value of the Yogic system of exercises ; and
  3. appropriate suitable syllabuses of physical education for different age and vocational groups.

122. As regards mental health the need for emotional stability should be recognised and the stabilising, ennobling and unifying influence of religion should be utilised for the purpose. In the earlier stages the moral truths common to all religions should be taught and emphasis laid on their practice. The University Education Commission has already made recommendations* in regard to the study of religion at the university stage.



123. The total allotment for educational development proposed in the Plan is Rs. 151 '66+ crores for the five-year period or an average annual expenditure of Rs. 30-33 crores. The total expenditure on education in 1950-51 was Rs. 63'16 crores of which Rs. 19'55 crores may be regarded as development expenditure. The increase from Rs. 19'55 to Rs. 30-33 crores a year represents an increase of nearly 55 per cent.

124. The expenditure provided under the head " Education " does not include the sum of Rs. 55.28 crores, during the five-year period or Rs. 11.06 crores annually on an average, proposed to be spent on a number of schemes of training, education and research, which are shown under other heads such as Agriculture, Medical, Industries, Labour, etc. The expenditure on such schemes in 1950-51 was Rs. 6.96 crores only. The Plan thus represents an increase of 58.9 per cent. The sums included directly under education {i.e., Rs. 151.66 crores) are nearly 46 per cent of the total proposed expenditure on Social Services,'which is Rs. 339.81 crores. The expenditure on education is nearly 7 per cent of the total expenditure of approximately Rs. 2,069 crores visualised in the Plan.

Distribution of expenditure

125. The distribution of the total expenditure visualised over the five years of the Plan among the various sub-heads will be as follows according to the schemes submitted by the Central Ministry and the States :—

(Rs. in lakhs)

State/Ministry Adminis-
Primary Education Secondary Education University Education Technical and Vocational Education Social Education Other schemes Total

States 75.7 74.52.8 8,30.4 9,25.1 9,90-4 7,60.0 5,84.1 l,16,18-5
Central Government   12,50.0   2,47.0 11,55.0 7,50.0 1,00.0 35,02-0
total (1951-56) 75.7 87,02.8 8,30.4 11,72.1 21,45-4 15,10.0 6,84.1 1,51,20-5
  (o-5%) (57.6%) (5.5%) (7.8%) (14-2%) (10.0%) (4.5%) (100%)
Development expenditure in 9.5 13,24.2 88.9 1,20.1 2,65-6 76.9 71.1 19.55-3
1950-51 o.5% (67.7%) (4.5%) (6.2%) (13-6%) (3.9%) (3.6%) (100%)

The development programmes introduce no radical alterations in the overall structure of the educational system. The tendency in the pre-Plan period to broaden the base of the system has, as a matter of fact, been retarded. The percentage of development expenditure on primary education has fallen from 67'7 percent in 1950-51 to 57-6 per cent during the period of the Plan. The need of the present situation, however, is as stated earlier, that the present emphasis on primary education should be considerably increased. Although it is not possible to introduce radical alterations in the pattern of expenditure in the short period of five years without serious dislocation, the programme should be revised wherever possible so as to lay much greater stress on primary education than has been done hitherto. Similarly the emphasis on technical and vocational education needs an upward revision.

Programmes of the Ministry of Education

126. The total expenditure proposed for the Central Ministry is, as stated above, Rs. 35.02 crores. Out of this provision, a sum of Rs. 5.72 crores* was provided in the budgets of 1951-52 and 1952-53. The provision for the remaining three years of the Plan. would therefore be Rs. 29.30 crores at the average rate of Rs. 9.77 crores. The development expenditure of the Ministry in 1950-51 was Rs. 1.25 crores.

127. The provision ofRs. 35-02 crores is roughly divided into Rs. 20'oo crores for pre-university education, comprising mostly of basic and social education; Rs. 2-92 crores for university education ; Rs. n • 10 crores for scientific and technical education ; and Rs. i crore for youth camps and labour service for students. A large number of the schemes contemplated are intended to be carried out m the States which are willing to co-operate and jointly share financial responsibility with the Centre in such proportions as may be agreed upon. The various types of schemes contemplated are shown below :

(a) For pre-university education the Centre has the following schemes :—

  1. Basic and primary education—Complete units of basic education, from the pre-basic school to the post-graduate basic training college, will be set up, at least one in each State. Research in the problem of methods and curricula, with a view to improve them, will be one of the special functions of these units and results achieved by them will be made available to all basic institutions of the country in a systematic manner. The training colleges of these units will train teachers for junior and senior basic schools. Each of these units will also be a community centre as well as a research centre where the impact of a complete unit of basic education on the whole life of the community will be studied. Ordinary primary schools in the area in which a basic unit is set up will also be helped to improve their standards.
  2. Social education—Tanata Colleges will be established, at least one in each State, for experimental purposes. Their main object will be to train social education workers, community organisers and administrators. When some of these colleges are no longer needed for this training they will be turned into rural colleges. These colleges will also serve as community centres. An attempt will also be made to establish at least one school-cum-community centre in each district. The Janata Colleges will be opened in association with the units of basic education mentioned above. Library service will also be integrated with these institutions. The aim of concentrating all these institutions in one area is to attempt the intensive educational development of that area.
  3. Secondary education—At least one multi-lateral high school will be opened as a pilot institution in each State, if necessary with suitable Central aid. These schools will have not only sections for liberal arts and sciences but also sections for technical education, commerce, agriculture, etc. Occupational schools, particularly for children between the ages of 14-18 will also be established, where possible, for experimental purposes. Grants will be given on a non-recurring basis to such experimental schools conducted by the States if they satisfy the necessary conditions. Research bureaus devoted to the study of problems of secondary education will be established at secondary training colleges or universities. Merit scholarships will be provided in existing public schools to enable able but poor students to obtain the benefits of these institutions.
  4. Audio-visual aids—Production of these will be encouraged by establishing a unit at the Central Institute of Education which will co-ordinate the efforts of research workers and teachers in this field all over the country. The State Governments, private firms and publishers will be assisted in producing simpler audio-visual aids. These aids will be for use in primary and secondary schools as well as in social education work.
  5. Experiments—Grants will be given to the State Governments and to voluntary and private organisations for carrying out important educational experiments.
  6. Training—Grants will be given to the State Governments for the training of basic teachers and social education workers. There are schemes for training the personnel for organising selective tests and providing vocational guidance.
  7. Literature—The Central Ministry of Education will produce selected model literature and encourage various firms and publishers to produce reading material. The literature which will be produced will be for children, for social education, for basic education well as for secondary schools. Competitive prizes and awards will be given to encourage as the production of this literature and audio-visual aids.
  8. Indian and federal languages—Original works as well as translations in various Indian languages will be assisted. Steps will be taken to promote the federal language. In the first instance, dictionaries, encyclopaedias and other reference books will be produced by the Central Ministry.
  9. Juvenile offenders—Pilot centres will be established for the treatment of juvenile delinquents and defectives.

(b) For technical education a provision of Rs. 11.10 crores has been made. Out of this amount a sum of Rs. 7-55 crores will be spent on schemes which are already in progress. They include schemes for the development of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Both these schemes are calculated to make up for the deficiency of facilities for post-graduate and research work in this country. The scheme for the development and expansion of 14 engineering institutions is expected to give tone primarily to under-graduate work where there has been expansion in recent years without proper provision of teachers, equipment, buildings, etc. The practical training stipends scheme is calculated to help to make up the deficiency of practical training among the products of technical institutions in our country. Out of the balance ofRs. 3-55 crores, money will be found for further helping post-graudate courses and advanced research work ,' for providing facilities for the study of special subjects like technical training in printing, processing of woollen and silk fabrics, etc., at the under-graduate level; for training in architecture and town planning ; for developing facilities for part-time courses at the various levels; for providing for teschers' training ; and finally for construction of hostels.

(c) A sum of Rs. 2-92 crores has been provided for helping universities in the study of science and humanities. Out of this another a sum of Rs. 20 lakhs has been earmarked for helping libraries in universities and Rs. 45 lakhs for the research training scholarship scheme.

(d) The establishment of a National Central Library at New Delhi is also under consideration.

Programmes of the State Governments

128. The expenditure proposed in the States* sector is Rs. 116-65 crores, or an average annual expenditure ofRs. 23-33 crores, which represents an increase of 27 per cent over the development expenditure ofRs. 18-31 crores in 1950-51. The scope of the expenditure in the States' sector is increased by the fact, already stated, that the major share of the expenditure of the Ministry of Education is to be incurred in the various States.

129. The types of schemes which State Governments have submitted under different heads are as follows :—

(1) Schemes of primary education include improvement of existing primary schools and opening of new ones, conversion of primary into basic schools and opening of new basic schools. Under improvement of existing primary schools are schemes for the improvement of buildings, the provision of play-grounds, the improvement of salaries of teachers, and the training of additional teachers. There are programmes for the training of basic teachers, whether newly recruited or taken from existing schools for refresher courses. Buildings and equipment for basic schools to be opened have also been provided for. There are schemes for extending primary education to rural and other backward areas.

(2) Schemes for secondary education include those for opening of new secondary schools and improvement of existing ones. There are schemes for opening both middle and high schools. Improvement schemes consist of provision for buildings, equipment and staff, as well as for upgrading of primary to middle schools, middle to high schools and high schools to intermediate colleges. New subjects like'physical education, military training, gardening and agriculture, music, etc., are sought to be introduced in" some schools and there are schemes for training of teachers in some of these subjects. There are schemes for maintenance of model schools. Some States have special schemes for extending secondary education for girls. A number of States have sought to provide playgrounds for secondary schools. In States where new areas have been merged, special provision has been made for extending education to those areas.

(3) Schemes for university education include opening of new universities and colleges, and improvement and expansion of existing colleges. Improvement schemes consist mostly of improvement of buildings and equipment. Expansion schemes involve opening of new classes of higher standard for new, mostly scientific, subjects. Provision for scholarships to meritorious students and for research has also been made.

(4) Schemes of social education include schemes for libraries, physical education and youth activities, audio-visual education, literacy and adult education centres, social education among women, etc. There are no schemes for the training of social education workers, organisers and administrators. The Central Government, however, have plans for providing these training facilities in co-operation with the State Governments.

(5) Schemes of technical and vocational education include those for encouraging technical and vocational education at all levels. At lower levels there are schemes for opening craft schools, converting craft schools into junior technical high schools, for survey and opening of junior polytechnics, for organising technical and vocational education in middle schools, for conversion of secondary schools into technical high schools, for organisation of diploma courses, for opening industrial schools and agriculture bias schools, etc. Hitherto craft centres have been opened only in towns. In the working of the Plan care should be taken to provide rural training centres [reference para. 78] as well.

At higher levels we have the upgrading of some commercial and technical schools into colleges, opening of new technical colleges, grants to existing technical institutions, giving stipends to students for studies abroad, etc.

(6) Administration, direction and inspection—The expansion of educational activities would necessitate the strengthening of the headquarters staff as well as the inspectorate staff. The introduction and extension of basic education and technical and vocational education has made the addition of special staff necessary. Various schemes have been provided for. improvement of administration, direction and inspection.

(7) Besides the schemes mentioned above, there are schemes for further education of ex-Service personnel, for development of regional languages and literature, for the education of the handicapped, for setting up the National Cadet Corps in colleges, for the improvement of special fields of education as oriental education, statistics, etc. There are schemes for the training of the personnel abroad.

Results of the programmes

130. The results of the above programmes as estimated on the basis of State resources proposed to be spent are shown in -the statement on pages 568 and 569 and are summed up below:

(1) In the field of primary education the number of primary schools will increase by 17 per cent and the number of pupils by 25 per cent. The corresponding increase in the junior basic schools would be 22 per cent and 81 per cent. Taking the primary and junior basic schools together, we find that whereas in 1950-51 only 44. 5 per cent of the children of the age group 6-11 were being provided for, the percentage is estimated to rise to 55 -7 per cent in 1955-56. This result is estimated only on the basis of the State resources. We feel that it can be considerably improved if local resources are properly developed and tapped for the purpose of education. Though firm estimates are impossible at this stage it should not be difficult to reach the target of 60 per cent. Again if crafts are introduced in primary and middle stages and the training in them is properly handled it should be possible to add the three senior classes to primary (or junior basic) schools without any appreciable addition to the cost, which should enable us to improve considerably the results in respect of the children of 11-14, and which will favourably affect the estimated results in regard to secondary education mentioned below. Besides those who go to regular schools a large number of properly directed children's clubs run with voluntary help, especially of students, should be able to spread, as already stated, some of the essentials of education among a large number of children who cannot go to school or for whom schools, are not provided.

(2) In the field of secondary education while secondary schools are estimated to increase by 18 per cent during the period of the Plan the number of pupils would increase by 32 per cent. The percentage of the age-group 11-17 being provided for will increase from 10-8 per cent in 1950-51 to 13-3 per cent in 1955-56.

(3) In the case of technical and vocational education (other than industrial schools), although the percentage increase (57 per cent in the case of institutions and 63 per cent in the case of number trained during the year) is very striking, it has to be viewed against the present poor provision. The case with industrial schools is similar.

(4) As regards teachers, training facilities expand differently at different levels. While the number trained during the year increases only by 15 per cent in the case of primary teachers, it increases by 54 per cent in the case of secondary schools and 162 per cent in the case of basic teachers. The low percentage increase in the case of primary teachers is explained by the fact that with the policy of ultimately converting aU primary schools into basic schools most of the States are taking steps to convert their primary teachers* training colleges into basic training colleges. It may be said that a high percentage of development of training facilities at all levels is contemplated during the Plan period. But the existing facilities are so insufficient that this increase does not make much impression on the present situation where a very high percentage of teachers are untrained. The percentage of untrained teachers in 1950-51 was 37 in the case of primary schools, 45 in the case of junior basic schools and 44 per cent in the case of secondary schools. As a result of expansion of training facilities the percentage of trained teachers will rise by 3,15', 6 per cent, respectively in the cases of primary, junior basic and secondary teachers.

(5) The highly unsatisfactory situation in regard to girls' education does not improve appreciably and the programmes need to be revised to lay sufficient emphasis on this very important aspect of the educational problem.


(According to programmes submitted by the Governments)

Year No. of institutions Primary (ordinary) Junior Basic
Pupils Teachers   Pupils Teachers

Total No.

Percentage of girls Total number Percentage of trained teachers No. of institutions Percentage
number of girls
Total number Percentage of Trained Teachers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1950-51 1,72,779 l,51,10,316 30 3,86,169 63 35,002 29,00,322 8 77,013 55,.0
1955-56 2,02,141 1,87,88,750 32 4,60,324 66 421833 52,76,278 13 1,11,893 70-3
Percentage of increase in 1955-56 over1950-51. 17 25 3 19-2 3 22 81 5 45 15

Note : Figures for Hyderabad, Kashmir, Rajasthan, Ajmer and Vindhya Pradesh arc not included, unless otherwise specifically stated. Other States excluded under various heads are mentioned below :—

  1. Figures for Uttar Pradesh are not included.
  2. Figures for Uttar Pradash are not included.
  3. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Mysore arc not included.
  4. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal are not included.
  5. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal are not included.
  6. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Travancore-Cochin and Coorg are not included and those for Rajasthan are included.
  7. Figures for Madhya Pradesh and Coorg are not included.
  8. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Saurashtra, Travancore-Cochin, Bhopal. Coorg, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch and Tripura are not included.
  9. Figures for Madhya Pradesh and Coorg are not included.
  10. Figures for Madhya Pradesh and Coorg are not included.

(According to programmes submitted by the Governments)

Secondary Pupils Teachers Technical and Vocational (excl. Industrial Schools) Industrial Schools Training of Teachers (number trained during the year)
No. of institutions Total number Percentage of girls

Total number

Percentage of trained teachers No. of institutions Number trained during the year No. of institu-
No. trained during the year No. of Primary trained Number of Secondary
Number of Basic trained
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 23 21 22 23
16,387 43,87,657 19 1,63,575 56 260 26,702 365 14,750 27,927 9,516 5,370
19,262 57,79,395 16 2,06,856 62 407 43,603 456 21,797 32,212 14,666 14,045
18 32 —3 26 6 57 63 25 48 15 54 162
  1. Figures for Rajasthan included.
  2. Figures for Madhya Pradesh, Mysore and Manipur are not included.
  3. Figures for Madhya Pradesh are not included.
  4. Figures for Madhaya Pradesh are not included.
  5. Figures for Orissa, Pepsu, Himachal Pradesh, Coorg, Manipur and Tripura are not included. Figures for Hyderabad are included.
  6. Figures for Orissa, Pepsu, Coorg, Manipur and Tripura are not included. Those for Hyderabad are included.
  7. Figures for Bihar, Saurashtra and Part C' States are not included. Those for Rajasthan and Hyderabad are included.
  8. Figures for Bihar, Saurashtra and Part ' C' States are not included. Those for Hyderabad are included.
  9. Figures for Travancore-Cochin, Bilaspur, Coorg and Tripura are not included.
  10. Figures for Coorg, Delhi. Kutch and Tripura are not included.
  11. Figures for Uttar Pradesh, Travancore-Cochin, Coorg, Kutch, Manipur and Tripura are not included.
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