1st Five Year Plan
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Introduction || APPENDIX (CH-4) || APPENDIX (CH-9) || ANNEXURE (CH-12) || APPENDIX (CH-14) || APPENDIX (CH-24) || APPENDIX (CH-29) || Conclusion
1 || 2 || 3 || 4 || 5 || 6 || 7 || 8 || 9 || 10 || 11 || 12 || 13 || 14 || 15 || 16 || 17 || 18 || 19 || 20 || 21 || 22 || 23 || 24 || 25 || 26 || 27 || 28 || 29 || 30 || 31 || 32 || 33 || 34 || 35 || 36 || 37 || 38 || 39

Chapter 20:

For a country like India with a large vegetarian population, milk is a very important food. Despite this fact and the large number of milch animals in India, dairying is in a backward condition, and has not received the attention it deserves. Poor quality cattle, insufficiency of feeds and fodder, high incidence of disease and lack of organised production, improper handling of milk and milk products are problems requiring urgent attention. The improvement of cattle depends primarily upon a proper policy and programme for breeding and feeding. The measures necessary in this connection i.e., schemes for key villages, Gosadans, artificial insemination and use of oil cakes as cattle feed etc. have been indicated earlier.

2. The average yield of milk per cow in India is 413 pounds which is about the lowest of any country in the world. The highest yield is 8,000 pounds in the Netherlands followed by 7,000 pounds in Australia, 6,000 in Sweden and a little more than 5,000 pounds in the United States of America. The low average production per animal is responsible for the over-all low production in the country.

3. Out of about 193 million cattle and buffaloes in the Indian Union, 70 million or about 36 per cent. are milch animals i.e., females over 3 years. Though buffaloes form only 30 per cent of the milch animals, they account for 54 per cent of the milk compared with 42 per cent yielded by the cows. This is due to the fact that a buffalo yields on an average 1,101 pounds of milk per annum and a cow only 413 pounds. Besides, buffalo milk is richer in fat and generally contains 6-5 to 7 per cent fat as compared to 4 to 5 per cent in the case-of cow's mHk. If milk were the only consideration, buffaloes would appear to be more useful than cows. The cow, however, has the advantage as its progeny also provides the motive power for cultivation,

4. According to the 1951 cattle census, the average per capita consumption of milk and milk products works out at 5-5 ounces, which comes to about 2-5 c-hhataks or ^th of a seer per day. The consumption of milk and milk products, however, varies considerably in different parts of the country. It is as high as l6'89 ounces in the Punjab and 15'72 ounces in Rajasthan, while in Orissa it is 2-64 ounces only. Except Punjab and Rajasthan all the major States are deficient in milk consumption by the standard of 10 ounces per day recommended by nutrition experts.

5. The gross annual milk production in 1945 was estimated at 21 • 42 million tons, of which 14 • 5 million tons only were marketable, the balance being either fed to calves or retained for home consumption. The production of milk in villages is on a small scale and scattered. The average daily production per village as given in the Report on the Marketing of Milk in the Indian Union is only 2-5 maunds. There are, however, some 'milk pockets ' or areas of concentrated milk production in the States of Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Saurashtra where large quantifies of surplus milk are available during the flush season. Except in Bombay State, where milk is railed from Anand to Bombay city, surplus milk in other milk pockets distant from urban centres is generally utilised for the manufacture of ghee and khoa. Even though 95 per cent of the milch cattle are found in the rural areas where 86 per cent of the people reside, the effective demand for milk and milk products is found in urban markets,

6. The supply of milk to urban areas is unsatisfactory both in quantity and quality. This is due to lack of organised production in the surrounding villages, difficulties of transport, production of milk in urban areas under insanitary conditions and at high prices and its distribution by a host of middlemen. It is estimated that at present 60 to 70 per cent of the fluid milk requirements of the urban areas is derived from cattle maintained within the municipal limits. These cattle are generally kept in insanitary and congested conditions which affect their health, milk performance and breeding capacity. They are also a source of nuisance to the surrounding residential area. A majority of these animals when they become dry are sent to the slaughter house. Maintaining cattle in this manner is uneconomic and is a drain on the cattle wealth of the country. The remaining 30 to 40 per cent of the urban milk supply is derived from villages situated within 30 miles of the urban areas. The trade is in the hands of milk vendors whose methods of handling and transporting milk are neither efficient nor sanitary. A few Pinfrapoles, Gaushcdas and Co-operatives are engaged in dairy farming for the supply of mUk to urban areas. They, however, meet only a fraction of the total demand. There were also about 75 dairy farms in the Indian Union in 1949, most of which belonged to the Military and Civil Departments of Governments.

7. Urban .consumers pay a high price for milk although it is of poor quaHty. According to a recent survey the retail milk price is higher in India than in any other important country. The high level of prices is principally due to shortage of supply. Measures for increasing milk production have, therefore, to be accorded the highest priority, especially as the p.er capita consumption is much below what is desirable from a nutritional standpoint. Proper arrangements are also necessary for the collection, transportation and distribution of milk. The work started in rural areas surrounding towns like Poona and Delhi for organising milk production and distribution on a cooperative basis has shown good results. The supply of milk to Poona has been increased in the course of about two and a half years from 332 Ibs. to 8,240 Vos. per day. A sum of Rs. 2 lakhs was spent on purchasing good class animals and an artificial insemination sub-centre has been started in the suburban area. Feeds and concentrates are purchased wholesale resulting in a saving of 20 to 25 per cent. The quality of die milk is tested in the villages before collection and arrangements made for transporting it to the cities. The scheme has .also benefited the consumers as they are able to get milk of good quality at reasonable rates. All this has been brought about at quite a small cost. The experience gained at Poona and other cities indicates the future pattern of development. It is, however, clear that in any .scheme of urban milk supply the emphasis will have to be laid on increasing production in suburban areas, gradually shifting the cattle from the urban centres, and adopting strong measures of quality control.

8. The State Plans include 27 schemes for dairying and milk supply. They are estimated to cost Rs. 781 • o lakhs. The expenditure of Part 'A ' States has been put at Rs. 770.3 lakhs, Part * B ' States—Rs. 3.3 lakhs and Part' C ' States—Rs. 7 4 lakhs. Among Part ' A ' States Bombay has provided- for the largest sum viz. about Rs. 6 crores or 77 per cent of the total expenditure. This amount is proposed to be utilised for the supply of milk to the cities of Poona, Hubli and Ahmedabad. The West Bengal Government have earmarked a sumofRs. 50 lakhs for the removal of dairy cattle from Calcutta to the adjacent farm at Haringhat and also for the supply of standardised milk to Calcutta proper.

9. The provision made in the Plan for milk supply schemes is inadequate except in Bombay. Even though the problems of a few cities may-be tackled through the schemes envisaged in the Plan, many of the important towns and cities will not get any benefit. The problem cannot, however, be solved by government initiative alone. -Better r-esults may be had if the work of improving the "milk supply is taken up jointly by the States, the Municipal Committees, the local Pinjrapoles and Gaushalas and producers' co-operatives.

10. We, therefore, suggest that a Milk Board be set up for each urban area. It should be a statutory body with a paid executive, consisting of representatives of producers, distributors, consumers, municipalities, health authorities and the State Government. A Milk Plan for the area would be drawn up by the Board after careful survey of needs. All matters relating to import, handling and distribution, quality control and prices of milk and milk products should be dealt with by the Board, which would also be responsible for organising production in the suburban, and urban areas through a co'-operative. The Plan would include removal of cattle from urban areas, a measure highly desirable both frum the standpoint of public health and the conservation of the cattle-wealth of the country The dislodged cattle and their owners may be rehabilitated by providing facilities for settling them in villages around the cities. The Co-operative would supply cattle fodder, feed and other requisites, would provide loans to the members for buying cattle, and would arrange for collection of the milk. The society would also look after the distribution of milk in the town either through its own depots or through licensed private milk vendors or agents. The financial assistance needed by the Milk Board and the co-operatives should be provided by the Government, the municipal committee and the co-operative bank. As the scheme would popularise mixed farming in suburban areas it should qualify for assistance under the Grow More Food Campaign. We also suggest that some of the key village centres may be located in areas surrounding the cities as the increased supply of milk obtained'as a result of improved breeding and management will find a ready market in these urban centres. While these steps are being taken to augment supplies, the machinery employed for licensing, sampling, and testing would be strengthened by the Board and prosecutions hastened against the un-social elements who adulterate milk. The standards now in force in different urban areas in regard to the quality of milk and milk products will have also to be examined and revised wherever necessary.

11. As regards rural areas, improvement in milk yield would come about mostly by the better breeding contemplated through the key village scheme and by arranging better fodders and feeds. By achieving a target of food production of 7-6 million tons the fodder availability would increase to the extent of about 14 million tons. Allowing for wastage etc about 10 million tons of fodder would be available for consumption by the cattle. The problem of milk production and its greater use in rural areas is thus closely related to the overall rise in agricultural production and standards of living. There is, however considerable scope for improving the production of ghee as its sale will bring additional income to the farmer and the use of its by-product, namely, butter milk will enrich his diet.


12. Fruit and vegetables, like milk, can be a very useful element in the diet of the people. Although exact statistics are not available, the area under horticultural crops amounts to about 4 million acres, i.e., about 3 million acres under "fruit and i million acres under vegetables, which roughly means a little over one per cent of the total cropped area.

13. The production of fruit is estimated at about 6 million tons and that of vegetables at about 4 million tons. Allowing for wastage of about 25 per cent in the case of fruit, this production would permit of consumption of only about i. 5 oz. per head per day and in the case of vegetables even less. According to nutrition experts 3 ozs. of fruit and 10 ozs. of vegetables per day are required for a balanced diet. There, is, therefore, wide scope and need for increasing the production and consumption of fruit and vegetables. This can be achieved partly by increasing the area devoted to their cultivation and partly by adopting improved agricultural practices to get increased yields from the existing area. A substantial increase in production per acre can be brought about by removing some of the existing defects of fruit and vegetable-growing in this country e.g., haphazard lay-out of the gardens, employment of inferior seeds and varieties, absence of regular pruning, training, and weeding, indequate measures against insect-pests and diseases, lack of credit facilities and of arrangements for grading, packing, and marketing, and lastly want of readily available means of conserving the surplus by cold storage and preservation so as to prevent a glut in the market at the height of the season.

14. The State plans envisage a total expenditure ofRs. 121.22 lakhs on schemes relating to horticulture. Part A States account for about 90 per cent of this expenditure. The Schemes are of a varied nature, such as, research on fruits and vegetables, multiplication of vegetable seeds, supply of nursery plants, extension of the area under potatoes, etc

15. For the further development of horticulture special consideration should be given to the following measures :—

  1. Fruit growers in the principal fruit-growing regions should be assisted to organise themselves on cooperative lines for raising nursery plants, controlling pests and diseases, and for marketing fruit and fruit products.
  2. Suburban belts around large towns should be developed 'for raising fruit and vegetables and the growers organised on a .cooperative basis, especially for the purpose of marketing their produce. Steps should also be taken to popularise kitchen gardening in urban areas by supplying seeds and plants and technical advice.
  3. The preservation of fruit and vegetables, which has been started on a small scale, should be expanded on modern lines. There are at present 467 factories with a total output of 10,000 tons valued at Rs. i -63 crores. This is less than -02 per cent of the total produce. Research on modern and indigenous methods of fruit preservation should receive increasing attention at the hands of the Central and State Governments.

16. The Governments of some countries besides providing facilities for research, give assistance and encouragement to fruit and vegetable preservation in the following ways:

  1. sugar for fruit preservation is supplied at the world market rate,
  2. the import of machinery and other essentials is allowed either duty free or at concessional rates, and
  3. concessions are granted in freight rates for transport of raw materials to the canning factoriesand of the finished products from the canning factories to the centres of consumption of the ports. With the development of horticulture the adoption of similar measures in this country for encouraging the preservation of fruit and vegetables will have to be considered. At a later stage it may be desirable to make available cold storage facilities at important markets and refrigerated railway wagons for transportation of horticultural produce.

17. The suggestion has also been made that a Fruit and Vegetable Development Board should be established in the Food and Agriculture Ministry which should be responsible for developing the industry on a country-wide basis by enforcing quality standards, supervising research, maintaining statistics and giving technical advice to States which need it. This suggestion deserves consideration.

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